Solubility of drugs: Solubility expressions, mechanisms of solute solvent interactions, ideal solubility pa- rameters, solvation & association, quantitative approach to the factors influencing solubility of drugs, dif- fusion principles in biological systems. Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, (Binary solutions, ideal solutions) Raoult’s law, real solutions. Partiallymiscible liquids, Critical solution tempera- ture and applications. Distribution law, its limitations and applications
States of Matter and properties of matter:State of matter, changes in the state of matter, latent heats, vapour pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols – inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states, solidcrystalline, amorphous & polymorphism. Physicochemical properties of drug molecules: Refractive index, optical rotation, dielectric constant, dipole moment, disso- ciation constant, determinations and applications
Surface and interfacial phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, sur- face active agents, HLB Scale, solubilisation, detergency, adsorption at solid interface.
Complexation and protein binding: Introduction, Classification of Complexation, Applications, methods of analysis, protein binding, Complexation and drug action, crystalline structures of complexes and ther- modynamic treatment of stability constants.
pH, buffers and Isotonic solutions: Sorensen’s pH scale, pH determination (electrometric and calorimet- ric), applications of buffers, buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, buffered isotonic solutions.
‘Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II – Theory’ is a course offered in the third semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.
Scope & Objectives
Course Duration: 45 Hours
The course deals with the various physica and physicochemical properties, and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharma- ceutical dosage forms.
Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to
- Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms
- Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing and determination of expiry date of formulations
- Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation development and evaluation of dosage forms.