Introduction to planning operation and control.
Objectives of planning: Long and short term planning, load forecasting, advanced methodologies.
Economic operation: Review of thermal units, lambda iteration method, first order gradient method, base point and participation factors. Generation with limited supply, take or pay fuel contract, composite generation production cost function, solution of gradient search techniques. Hard limits and slack variables. hydro-thermal coordination, long range and short range scheduling, scheduling problems, scheduling energy, short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem, pumped storage hydro plants, pumped storage hydro scheduling λ -γ iteration, fast scheduling techniques. Inter change evaluation and power pools, economy interchange evaluation with unit commitments, types of interchange, energy banking.
State estimation: introduction to advanced topics, detection and identification of bad measurements, estimation of quantities not being measured, network observability and pseudo-measurements, synchronized measurements-PMU.
Power system security: system monitoring, contingency analysis, security constrained optimal power flow, factors affecting power system security, advanced security monitoring. Transient stability analysis (multi machine system), small signal stability and power system oscillations, voltage stability, direct stability methods, power system stabilizers.
Load frequency control: basic concepts of governor mechanism, mathematical models of speed governing system. State space model of a single area system & two area systems,
Voltage control: AGC including excitation system, MVAR control. SCADA and decision-making tools in control centers, advanced controller techniques. Simulation oriented case studies.