Back close
Block Image

The Theories of Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence, or, what is commonly referred to as EQ has been claimed to be the key to success in life. Despite the fact that theories of emotional intelligence only really came about in 1990, much has been written about this topic since then. It has been argued by some people that EQ, the ‘emotion quotient’, is even more important than the somewhat less controversial ‘intelligence quotient’ or IQ. Why bother understanding EQ? Well, can you imagine a world in which we did not understand any of our feelings? Or where we could not perceive that another person was angry with us by the ferocious look on their face? Emotional intelligence is everywhere we look, and without it, we would be devoid of a key part of the human experience.

Upcoming Events

Will be Updated Soon

Programs Offered

Key Take Aways

The 5 Levels of Leadership helps us answer a couple of such fundamental questions about leadership. Precisely,

1) Where are you as a leader right now?

2) How do you get to the next level?

3) Where should you ultimately aim to be as a leader?

Program Outcomes

1) Be more successful as a leader.

2) Increase your chances of earnings.

3) Become more influential.

4) Improve your rapport with team members.

5) Develop important leadership skills.

6) Build a stronger network with people in your industry.

Key Take Aways

1) Uses and benefits in Teaching Practice

a) Unearth The Past And Recollect Episodes Of Resilience

b) Discover The Life-Giving Energies Through Appreciative Dialogue

c) Take Stock Of Limiting Factors/Beliefs And

d) Channelize The Discovered Energies Towards Convergence

Key Take Aways

1) Identifying anger as an Emotion

a) Its Triggers

b) Causes

c) Manifestations

2) Other emotions hidden beneath anger

3) Seeing Past Anger

4) Understanding and accepting anger

5) Self Management Tips

6) Anger as symptomatic of other unexpressed emotions

Key Take Aways

The Circle of Concern includes all the challenges and concerns we have in our work and in our life. The task is to realise which of these things are inside and which outside of our Circle of Control. Some things – like the weather, pandemics, the economy – are out of our control, there’s nothing we can do about them. Other things, such as how we respond to certain people, our work performance, and whether we eat healthy or unhealthy food, are totally within our control. But perhaps some of the things in our Circle of Concern, that we can’t control directly, are things we can influence.


Emotional Intelligence, or, what is commonly referred to as EQ has been claimed to be the key to success in life. Despite the fact that theories of emotional intelligence only really came about in 1990, much has been written about this topic since then. It has been argued by some people that EQ, the ‘emotion quotient’, is even more important than the somewhat less controversial ‘intelligence quotient’ or IQ. Why bother understanding EQ? Well, can you imagine a world in which we did not understand any of our feelings? Or where we could not perceive that another person was angry with us by the ferocious look on their face? Emotional intelligence is everywhere we look, and without it, we would be devoid of a key part of the human experience.
Key Take Aways

1) Understanding how Emotional Intelligence can influence :

a) Better Professional Relationships

b) Better Environment (or virtual environment)

c) Adjustments (Adapting to Change) Can Be Made Easier

d) More Self-Awareness

e) More Self-Control: handling tough situations better

f) Compassion

g) There’s More Motivation and Drive

View Program


What is emotional intelligence?

Emotional intelligence describes a person’s capability to manage and control their emotions as well as the ability to control the emotions of other people. Emotionally intelligent people are able to:

  • Identify what they are feeling
  • Know how to interpret their emotions
  • Recognize how their emotions can affect others
  • Regulate their own emotions
  • Manage other people’s emotions

While some people naturally have high EQ, it is also a skill that can be practiced and developed. Practicing emotionally intelligent behaviours helps your brain adapt to making these behaviours automatic and take the place of behaviours that are less helpful.

The Components of Emotional Intelligence?

Intelligence refers to the unique human mental ability to handle and reason about information (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008). Emotional intelligence (EI): “concerns the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought” (Mayer et al., 2008, p. 511). According to almost three decades of research, emotional intelligence (EI) results from the interaction of intelligence and emotion (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004). EI refers to an individual’s capacity to understand and manage emotions (Cherry, 2018).

The notion of EI consisting of five different components was first introduced by Daniel Goleman, a psychologist, and best-selling author. According to Cherry (2018), the 5 components of EI are:


Self-awareness refers to the capacity to recognize and understand emotions and to have a sense of how one’s actions, moods and the emotions of others take effect. It involves keeping track of emotions and noticing different emotional reactions, as well as being able to identify the emotions correctly. Self-awareness also includes recognizing that how we feel and what we do are related, and having awareness of one’s own personal strengths and limitations. Self-awareness is associated with being open to different experiences and new ideas and learning from social interactions.


This aspect of EI involves the appropriate expression of emotion. Self-regulation includes being flexible, coping with change, and managing conflict. It also refers to diffusing difficult or tense situations and being aware of how one’s actions affect others and take ownership of these actions.

Social skills

This component of EI refers to interacting well with other people. It involves applying an understanding of the emotions of ourselves and others to communicate and interact with others on a day-to-day basis. Different social skills include – active listening, verbal communication skills, non-verbal communication skills, leadership, and developing rapport.


Empathy refers to being able to understand how other people are feeling. This component of EI enables an individual to respond appropriately to other people based on recognizing their emotions. It enables people to sense power dynamics that play a part in all social relationships, but also most especially in workplace relations. Empathy involves understanding power dynamics, and how these affect feelings and behavior, as well as accurately perceiving situations where power dynamics come into force.


Motivation, when considered as a component of EI, refers to intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation means that an individual is driven to meet personal needs and goals, rather than being motivated by external rewards such as money, fame, and recognition. People who are intrinsically motivated also experience a state of ‘flow’, by being immersed in an activity. They are more likely to be action-oriented, and set goals. Such individuals typically have a need for achievement and search for ways to improve. They are also more likely to be committed and take initiative.

Models of the Emotional Intelligence Concept

The early theory of emotional intelligence described by Salovey and Mayer in 1990 explained that EI is a component of Gardner’s perspective of social intelligence. Similar to the so-called ‘personal’ intelligences proposed by Gardner, EI was said to include an awareness of the self and others (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). One aspect of Gardner’s conception of personal intelligence relates to ‘feelings’ and this aspect approximates what Salovey and Mayer conceptualize as EI (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). What differentiates EI from the ‘personal’ intelligences is that EI does not focus on a general sense of self and the appraisal of others – rather, it is focused on recognizing and using the emotional states of the self and others in order to solve problems and regulate behavior (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).

There are three major models of emotional intelligence:

  1. Goleman’s EI performance model
  2. Bar-On’s EI competencies model
  3. Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso’s EI ability model
The Benefits of Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace

There are many benefits to having emotional intelligent employees. Emotional intelligence has proven to make people work better with one another. In fact, it is all about how people function in their relationships and with themselves.A person may be highly qualified in all areas but if they are not able to get along with co-workers, superiors, and clients and if they aren’t able to self-motivate, that employee may be no good for the organization. So, what benefits of emotional intelligence are there for a workplace?

Better Teamwork
People with higher EQ communicate better with team members than those who are not in tune with their emotional intelligence.They share ideas and are open to others’ ideas. These people are more likely to trust their co-workers and value their ideas and input. They are respectful and thoughtful as the group works together.

Better Office Environment (or virtual environment)
Morale boosting is one of the many benefits of emotional intelligence in the workplace. When you have an office full of a staff that gets along and respects one another, the company culture is bound to be much stronger.Suddenly, the workplace also becomes an area of enjoyment. If you are looking for a way to promote a sense of teamwork and support within your workplace, you should attempt to make your environment a more enjoyable place.

Office managers will see this ultimately reflected in other areas of business as well, such as better interactions with stakeholders (customers/ clients/ intra department). This positive service-oriented approach will result in happy culture.

Adjustments Can Be Made Easier

It’s important for a company not to remain stagnant. By constantly focusing on self- and company geared improvement, a business is bound to experience change. Although employees likely know that changes within their company are happening based on what is needed or what is best for the business, however, they might not always welcome it with open arms. We, as humans, have always struggled with change.

People with high emotional awareness adjust easily and often times, embrace the change and grow alongside the company. This is a valuable personality trait that can be contagious among the team.

More Self-Awareness
One of the benefits of emotional intelligence in employees is that it helps them understand their own strengths and weaknesses. These employees are able to take feedback and use it in a positive way to improve and grow as an individual.
Often times, managers will run into defensiveness when offering constructive and necessary feedback to an employee. This alone can cause frustration and a halt in productivity, especially in the virtual/ remote work environments. Another problem leaders run into is people not understanding their own limitations.

While emotionally intelligent people know themselves and what they are able to accomplish in a set amount of time, others are more likely to overpromise and underdeliver.

Employees with a high emotional intelligence can learn from constructive criticism as well as be aware of what they are able to do. These are incredibly valuable tools.

More Self-Control
People with high emotional intelligence know how to handle tough situations. In present remote operations or in regular business, there are bound to be situations that don’t always feel comfortable, particularly for a person that is acting in a position of leadership.

A tough situation could be:

  1. involving a client that is unhappy,
  2. a co-worker that is posing a problem or offering a disagreement,
  3. a superior that is unhappy with your work, or.,
  4. a tough conversation with a subordinate.

These create a sense of unease and embarrassment.

This means holding an understanding mind and remaining calm. If we are able to refrain from an emotional outburst, practice restraint and remain calm in situations like these, it can result much better. People who have a high EQ understand that acting in a negative, provocative, or irrational way will escalate a situation unnecessarily.

One of the greatest benefits of emotional intelligence, both within the workplace and in one’s personal life, is the ability to maintain and display compassion for fellow humans. Compassion allows a person to connect with others on an emotional level.

Compassion can be:

  1. shared with a client that missed a payment due to a tough circumstance.
  2. shown to a co-worker dealing with a personal issue and needing someone to cover their responsibilities
  3. shown to leadership for the decisions they need to make on a daily basis.

Compassion helps us connect with others. By displaying compassion, an employee helps to connect the workplace and improve the morale and overall reputation of the company. This is a priceless benefit. It’s also, unfortunately, not normally a teachable skill.

Time’s Managed Better
A leader has the right to expect that his or her employees meet deadlines. Depending on the company, and in some situations, this can mean the difference between earning the dime or going hungry.In present tumultuous circumstances, it can minimally cause frustration and a divide between people. People with a higher emotional intelligence are able to manage their time in a more efficient manner, maximizing their productivity.

One of the greatest benefits of emotional intelligence in the workplace is that a leader doesn’t feel the need to micromanage his or her employees. It’s simply that these people know how to prioritize tasks and get them done in a timely manner.

There’s More Motivation
Emotionally Intelligent individuals are optimistic and are always naturally working towards a goal, whether personal, professional or both. These individuals have a growth mindset and they persevere no matter the obstacles they face.People with high emotional intelligence work hard for the benefit of knowing they completed the job successfully.They display resilience, will work hard for you and they do not give up easily.

Leadership Capabilities
Companies are constantly searching for quality leadership, as they should. This type of leadership makes a huge difference in productivity and profitability, allowing each employee to feel respected and valued.These people have empathy for others’ feelings and situations.They have a proper understanding of human nature. Because of this, they have a positive effect on their subordinates. They are able to be nurturing yet firm.These leaders have the ability to inspire employees. Leaders with these qualities can make a huge impact on the company culture.

Better Professional Relationships Are Able to Form
One of the benefits of emotional intelligence is understanding others. People with high EQ know what makes others tick. They are able to hone into what others like and don’t like.This helps a relationship, professional or otherwise, grow and develop into a strong, solid one. This is an extremely helpful skill in business today (and in personal life, for that matter). Being able to “read” people allows you to interact better and communicate properly.

You can identify what others are really thinking and feeling rather than just the words they are saying. “It’s not what you say, it’s how you say it,” is a thought process that means very much to people with high emotional intelligence. By being able to communicate well, it develops better relationships with clients, co-workers and with leadership.

Competitive Edge
Many companies haven’t realized the importance of emotional intelligence just yet. Because of this, other companies may not have a team that feels valued. Incorporating facets of emotional intelligence within the organisation can help it stand out in the industry.

It’s common knowledge what kind of team organisations want to build; strong, cohesive, go-getters that work well together. They may struggle with teams that do not work well together and lack motivation. This is a great advantage to have over competition, and contributes to:

  1. Lower absenteeism
  2. Higher commitment to organisation
  3. Higher job satisfaction
  4. Better work culture and environment
  5. Higher levels of responsibility and performance
  6. Increased Loyalty
Emotional Intelligence – Where Personality Assessments Fall Short

Personality assessments tend to measure just four temperaments. The current way of thinking is to match the right temperament to the right role for the optimal chance of success. However, the assessments cannot measure emotional intelligence, which means you cannot tell which are persistent versus insistent. Persistence is an ideal quality for a salesperson to have while someone who is insistent will waste time trying to sell to a person who clearly won’t buy – simply because they can’t take no for an answer.

By evaluating emotional intelligence, we are given a closer look into a person’s ability to manage emotions, deal with stress, and recognize biases. Essentially, measuring emotional intelligence provides insight into a person’s inner workings and makes it easier to match them with tasks.

Practical Examples of Emotional Intelligence

It has been shown that EI does definitely involve specific competencies. To provide a practical explanation of the specific competencies that EI involves, here are some competencies with examples of what each competency really means:

  • Emotional self-awareness (e.g. “it is hard for me to understand the way I feel”).
  • Assertiveness (e.g. “it is difficult for me to stand up for my right”)
  • Self-regard (e.g. “I don’t feel good about myself”)
  • Independence (e.g. “I prefer others to make decisions for me”)
  • Empathy (e.g. “I’m sensitive to the feelings of others”)
  • Interpersonal relationships (e.g. “people think that I’m sociable”)
  • Social responsibility (e.g. “I like helping people”)
  • Problem-solving (e.g. “my approach to overcoming difficulties is to move step by step)
  • Reality testing (e.g. “it’s hard for me to adjust to new conditions”)
  • Flexibility (e.g. “it’s easy for me to adjust to new conditions”)
  • Stress tolerance (e.g. “I know how to deal with upsetting problems”), and
  • Impulse control (e.g. “it’s a problem controlling my anger).
Emotional Intelligence – Teenage Development

There is considerable evidence pointing to its positive role in helping students deal with stress, develop relationships, and handle the transitions facing them. Just as emotional intelligence is important for adults, the concepts of social and emotional functioning play a key role in adolescents and teenagers. Emotional Intelligence in teens covers their ability to use emotions effectively and productively in an adaptive way. In fact, the concept has become of incredible interest not only pedagogically, but to everyone who’s realized that today’s teens are going to make up tomorrow’s workforce.

Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement

EI helps us manage negative emotions and our behaviors in response to them. So, does it impact on how teens and students perform academically? Some research does, in fact, suggest a relationship between Emotional Intelligence and academic achievement. In one study of Education students at university, Self-Emotion Appraisal and Understanding of Emotion were revealed to have positive significant linkages with their academic performance on assessments. These are findings that support the premises of Bar-On, developed of the EQ-i assessment, who has argued that “academic performance appears to be facilitated by being able to set personal goals as well as to be sufficiently optimistic and self-motivated to accomplish them”. But what about teens specifically? Interestingly, there is also empirical evidence to suggest that teens with EI are better able to make the transition from high school to higher education. Results of a study of 1,426 first-year students found significantly higher interpersonal, stress management, and adaptability skills among students who were academically successful in entering university. The authors’ conclusion was that EI has a large impact on students’ ability to deal with challenges such as developing new relationships and learning to live more independently, amongst other factors. It is important to look at the fascinating research on Emotional Intelligence for teens and students—why it matters, and how to develop it. We can then look into an in-depth study on some different ways that teachers and teens alike can take this knowledge and use it in practice. Emotional Intelligence can 100% be taught and learned.

Areas of Emotional Intelligence for the Student Curriculum
  • Social and Emotional Learning (SEL)
  • Active Listening
    1. Focusing on both self and others during dialogue
    2. Being aware of our non-verbal cues
    3. Validating that we have listened through appropriate responses
    4. Maintaining awareness of the environment
  • Self-awareness
    1. Becoming attuned to our internal dialogue
    2. Self Talk: How Thoughts Affect Feelings and Behavior
  • Facilitating Mindfulness
    1. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
  • Social Communication Skills
  • Assertiveness
Emotional Intelligence At Play in Classrooms (For Teachers)

Based on what we have already discussed, it’s clear that EI is becoming an increasingly important part of curricula. It suggests a growing trend towards lessons and approaches that are either designed to teach or informed by Emotional Intelligence principles. But what can teachers expect? Well, first, teachers now have lots more available resources than they did when the famous marshmallow experiment was brand new (Shoda et al., 1990). These resources and a strong understanding of what Emotional Intelligence involves mean that educators can now access and implement evidence-based strategies for:

  • Classroom management
  • Feedback for collaborative classrooms
  • Managing bullying
  • Supporting students with test anxiety
  • Fostering creativity
  • Many other aspects of Student Behavior

Join to get updates on Latest Educational Advancements and Live Events

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Official Telegram Channel Exclusively for Educators

Contact Us

Admissions Apply Now