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Batten disease: biochemical and molecular characterization revealing novel PPT1 and TPP1 gene mutations in Indian patients.

Publisher : BMC Neurol

Campus : Kochi

School : School of Medicine

Year : 2018

Abstract :

BACKGROUND: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses type I and type II (NCL1 and NCL2) also known as Batten disease are the commonly observed neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the PPT1 and TPP1 genes respectively. Till date, nearly 76 mutations in PPT1 and approximately 140 mutations, including large deletion/duplications, in TPP1 genes have been reported in the literature. The present study includes 34 unrelated Indian patients (12 females and 22 males) having epilepsy, visual impairment, cerebral atrophy, and cerebellar atrophy.

METHODS: The biochemical investigation involved measuring the palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 and tripeptidy peptidase l enzyme activity from the leukocytes. Based on the biochemical analysis all patients were screened for variations in either PPT1 gene or TPP1 gene using bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In cases where Sanger sequencing results was uninformative Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification technique was employed. The online tools performed the protein homology modeling and orthologous conservation of the novel variants.

RESULTS: Out of 34 patients analyzed, the biochemical assay confirmed 12 patients with NCL1 and 22 patients with NCL2. Molecular analysis of PPT1 gene in NCL1 patients revealed three known mutations (p.Val181Met, p.Asn110Ser, and p.Trp186Ter) and four novel variants (p.Glu178Asnfs*13, p.Pro238Leu, p.Cys45Arg, and p.Val236Gly). In the case of NCL2 patients, the TPP1 gene analysis identified seven known mutations and eight novel variants. Overall these 15 variants comprised seven missense variants (p.Met345Leu, p.Arg339Trp, p.Arg339Gln, p.Arg206Cys, p.Asn286Ser, p.Arg152Ser, p.Tyr459Ser), four frameshift variants (p.Ser62Argfs*19, p.Ser153Profs*19, p.Phe230Serfs*28, p.Ile484Aspfs*7), three nonsense variants (p.Phe516*, p.Arg208*, p.Tyr157*) and one intronic variant (g.2023_2024insT). No large deletion/duplication was identified in three NCL1 patients where Sanger sequencing study was normal.

CONCLUSION: The given study reports 34 patients with Batten disease. In addition, the study contributes four novel variants to the spectrum of PPT1 gene mutations and eight novel variants to the TPP1 gene mutation data. The novel pathogenic variant p.Pro238Leu occurred most commonly in the NCL1 cohort while the occurrence of a known pathogenic mutation p.Arg206Cys dominated in the NCL2 cohort. This study provides an insight into the molecular pathology of NCL1 and NCL2 disease for Indian origin patients.

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