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Bone Tissue Engineering with Multilayered Scaffolds—Part II: Combining Vascularization with Bone Formation in Critical-Sized Bone Defect

Publication Type : Journal Article

Thematic Areas : Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine

Publisher : Tissue Engineering Part A

Source : Tissue Engineering Part A, Volume 21, Number 19-20, p.2495-2503 (2015)

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Campus : Kochi

School : Center for Nanosciences

Center : Amrita Center for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine Move, Nanosciences

Department : Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine

Year : 2015

Abstract : Our previous in vivo study showed that multilayered scaffolds made of an angiogenic layer embedded between an osteogenic layer and an osteoconductive layer, with layer thickness in the 100–400 μm range, resulted in through-the-thickness vascularization of the construct even in the absence of exogenous endothelial cells. The angiogenic layer was a collagen–fibronectin gel, and the osteogenic layer was made from nanofibrous polycaprolactone while the osteoconductive layer was made either from microporous hydroxyapatite or microfibrous polycaprolactone. In this follow-up study, we implanted these acellular and cellular multilayered constructs in critical-sized rat calvarial defects and evaluated their vascularization and bone formation potential. Vascularization and bone formation at the defect were evaluated and quantified using microcomputed tomography (microCT) followed by perfusion of the animals with the radio opaque contrast agent, MICROFIL. The extent of bony bridging and union within the critical-sized defect was evaluated using a previously established scoring system from the microCT data set. Similarly the new bone formation in the defect was quantified from the microCT data set as previously reported. Histological evaluation at 4 and 12 weeks validated the microCT findings. Our experimental results showed that acellular multilayered scaffolds with microscale-thick nanofibers and porous ceramic discs with angiogenic zone at their interface can regenerate functional vasculature and bone similar to that of cellular constructs in critical-sized calvarial defects. This result suggests that suitably bioengineered acellular multilayered constructs can be an improved and more translational approach in functional in vivo bone regeneration.

Cite this Research Publication : Binulal Nelson Sathy, Watson, B. M., Kinard, L. A., Spicer, P. P., Dahlin, R. L., Mikos, A. G., and Shantikumar V Nair, “Bone Tissue Engineering with Multilayered Scaffolds—Part II: Combining Vascularization with Bone Formation in Critical-Sized Bone Defect”, Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 21, pp. 2495-2503, 2015.

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