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Cognitive improvement by vorinostat through modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in a corticosterone-induced chronic stress model in mice

Publication Type : Journal Article

Publisher : ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ACS Publications,

Source : ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ACS Publications, Volume 11, Issue 17, p.2649–2657 (2020)

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Campus : Coimbatore

School : Department of Cultural Education, School of Engineering

Department : Cultural Education

Year : 2020

Abstract : Chronic stress is the leading cause of memory impairment today. Various stress-based models are being developed for studying cognitive impairment. Repurposing of existing drugs in a new pharmacology class is the safest and cheapest option for treatment instead of new drug discovery. Vorinostat (VOR) is the first histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma by the U.S. FDA. VOR follows the rule of five and is reported to cross the blood–brain barrier. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the procognitive potential of VOR (25 mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal (ip) route in a stress-based model of chronic corticosterone (CORT) injections (20 mg/kg, subcutaneously (sc)). The study comprised six groups. Normal mice were administered vehicle (VEH) (days 1–21, sc) in the first group, VOR (days 8–21, 25 mg/kg, ip) in the second group, and fluoxetine (FLX) (days 8–21, 15 mg/kg, oral) in the third group. Mice in the remaining three groups were given 20 mg/kg (sc) CORT for 21 days, and VOR (days 8–21, 25 mg/kg, ip) or FLX (days 8–21, 15 mg/kg, oral) was additionally administered to the treatment groups. Behavioral tests such as Morris water maze test, novel object recognition test, and object in place test were performed at the end of the dosing schedule to assess cognition. After behavior tests, mice were sacrificed, and hippocampus was separated from brain tissue for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry studies. VOR treatment attenuated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in CORT mice as evident from the reduction in DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (Ddit3) (gene encoding CHOP), caspase 12 (Casp12), and calpain-2 (Capn2) mRNA levels, and cleaved caspase 3 (CASP3) protein expression. Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) was significantly increased in VOR-treated CORT mice. VOR also reversed CORT induced increase in HDAC2 level in the CA3 region. The protective effects of VOR were comparable to that of FLX in CORT mice. Thus, VOR has the potential to reverse cognitive dysfunction via modulation of ER stress markers and HDAC2.

Cite this Research Publication : A. KV, Madhana, R. Mohanrao, Bais, A. Kumar, Singh, V. Bahadur, Malik, A., Sinha, S., Lahkar, M., Kumar, P., and Samudrala, P. Kumar, “Cognitive improvement by vorinostat through modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in a corticosterone-induced chronic stress model in mice”, ACS Chemical Neuroscience, vol. 11, no. 17, pp. 2649–2657, 2020.

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