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Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Heart Rate Variability in ECG Signal

Publication Type : Journal Article

Publisher : Healthcare Technology Letters

Source : Healthcare Technology Letters, Volume 7, Issue 6, p.146 (IF:1.157, CiteScore: 3.1, Q2- 64 percentile) (2020)

Campus : Coimbatore

School : School of Engineering

Center : Computational Engineering and Networking

Department : Electronics and Communication

Year : 2020

Abstract : Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is one of the most reliable methods to analyse the cardiovascular system. In the literature, there are different deep learning architectures proposed to detect various types of tachycardia diseases, such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, and sinus tachycardia. Even though all types of tachycardia diseases have fast beat rhythm as the common characteristic feature, existing deep learning architectures are trained with the corresponding disease-specific features. Most of the proposed works lack the interpretation and understanding of the results obtained. Hence, the objective of this letter is to explore the features learned by the deep learning models. For the detection of the different types of tachycardia diseases, the authors used a transfer learning approach. In this method, the model is trained with one of the tachycardia diseases called atrial fibrillation and tested with other tachycardia diseases, such as ventricular fibrillation and sinus tachycardia. The analysis was done using different deep learning models, such as RNN, LSTM, GRU, CNN, and RSCNN. RNN achieved an accuracy of 96.47% for atrial fibrillation data set, 90.88% accuracy for CU-ventricular tachycardia data set, and also achieved an accuracy of 94.71, and 94.18% for MIT-BIH malignant ventricular ectopy database for ECG lead I and lead II, respectively. The RNN model could only achieve an accuracy of 23.73% for the sinus tachycardia data set. A similar trend is shown by other models. From the analysis, it was evident that even though tachycardia diseases have fast beat rhythm as their common feature, the model was not able to detect different types of tachycardia diseases. The deep learning model could only detect atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation and failed in the case of sinus tachycardia. From the analysis, they were able to interpret that, along with the fast beat rhythm, the model has learned the absence of P-wave which is a common feature for ventricular fibrillation and atrial fibrillation but sinus tachycardia disease has an upright positive P-wave. The time-based analysis is conducted to find the time complexity of the models. The analysis conveyed that RNN and RSCNN models could achieve better performance with lesser time complexity.

Cite this Research Publication : Sowmya V., Sanjana, K., Gopalakrishnan, E. A., and Dr. Soman K. P., “Explainable Artificial Intelligence for Heart Rate Variability in ECG Signal”, Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 146 (IF:1.157, CiteScore: 3.1, Q2- 64 percentile), 2020.

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