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Outcome following surgery for insulo – opercular epilepsies

Publication Type : Journal Article

Source : J Neurosurg, 2022 Mar 11:1-11, doi: 10.3171/2021.12.JNS212220, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35276652.

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Keywords : MRI-negative epilepsy, electrical stimulation mapping, epilepsy surgery, insulo-opercular seizure, radiofrequency ablation, stereo-electroencephalography

Campus : Kochi

School : School of Medicine

Department : Neurology

Year : 2022

Abstract : Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome in patients with medically refractory epilepsy who had undergone resective or ablative surgery for suspected insulo-opercular epileptogenic foci. Methods: The prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing epilepsy surgery was reviewed, and all patients who underwent insulo-opercular surgery for medically refractory epilepsy with a minimum of 12 months of postoperative follow-up were identified, excluding those who had insulo-opercular resection in combination with temporal lobectomy. The presurgical electroclinicoradiological data, stereo-EEG (SEEG) findings, resection/ablation patterns, surgical pathology, postoperative seizure outcome, and neurological complications were analyzed. Results: Of 407 patients undergoing epilepsy surgery in a 5-year period at the Amrita Advanced Centre for Epilepsy, 24 patients (5.9%) who underwent exclusive insulo-opercular interventions were included in the study. Eleven (46%) underwent surgery on the right side, 12 (50%) on the left side, and the operation was bilateral in 1 (4%). The mean age at surgery was 24.5 ± 12.75 years. Onset of seizures occurred on average at 10.6 ± 9.7 years of life. Characteristic auras were identified in 66% and predominant seizure type was hypermotor (15.4%), automotor (15.4%), hypomotor (11.5%), or a mixed pattern. Seventy-five percent of the seizures recorded on scalp video-EEG occurred during sleep. The 3T MRI results were normal in 12 patients (50%). Direct single-stage surgery was undertaken in 5 patients, and SEEG followed by intervention in 19. Eighteen patients (75%) underwent exclusive resective surgery, 4 (16.7%) underwent exclusive volumetric radiofrequency ablation, and 2 (8.3%) underwent staged radiofrequency ablation and resective surgery. Immediate postoperative neurological deficits occurred in 10/24 (42%), which persisted beyond 12 postoperative months in 3 (12.5%). With a mean follow-up of 25.9 ± 14.6 months, 18 patients (75%) had Engel class I outcome, 3 (12.5%) had Engel class II, and 3 (12.5%) had Engel class III or IV. There was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between MRI-positive versus MRI-negative cases. Conclusions: Surgery for medically refractory epilepsy in insulo-opercular foci is less common and remains a challenge to epilepsy surgery centers. Localization is aided significantly by a careful study of auras and semiology followed by EEG and imaging. The requirement for SEEG is generally high. Satisfactory rates of seizure freedom were achievable independent of the MRI lesional/nonlesional status. Morbidity is higher for insulo-opercular epilepsy surgery compared to other focal epilepsies; hence, the practice and development of minimally invasive strategies for this subgroup of patients undergoing epilepsy surgery is perhaps most important.

Cite this Research Publication : Jayapaul P, Gopinath S, Pillai A., "Outcome following surgery for insulo- opercular epilepsies," J Neurosurg, 2022 Mar 11:1-11, doi: 10.3171/2021.12.JNS212220, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35276652.

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