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Towards establishing rainfall thresholds for a real-time landslide early warning system in Sikkim, India

Publication Type : Journal Article

Publisher : Springer

Source : Landslides 16, no. 12 (2019): 2395-2408.

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Campus : Amritapuri

School : School of Physical Sciences

Center : Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications (AmritaWNA)

Year : 2019

Abstract : Sikkim, one of the Northeastern states of India, is a famous tourism spot in the Himalayas with dynamic population density. This mountainous area receives heavy rainfall and is well known for frequent shallow landslides, especially, Chandmari, which is a village, situated in Gangtok area in East Sikkim. Even though it is well known that rainfall and landslides are correlated, Sikkim lacks a well-established landslide early warning system. Such a system is important in this region because it is one of the highest landslide-prone areas in India. The current research attempts to establish rainfall thresholds as part of developing an efficient landslide early warning system for this region. The rainfall thresholds for landslides are derived based on the daily rainfall data available from India Meteorological Department (IMD) for six stations in Sikkim. Analysis of daily rainfall data and landslide events in this area between the year 1990 and 2017 is performed. An intensity–duration (I–D)-based regional rainfall threshold is derived as I = 43.26 D−0.78 (I = rainfall intensity in mm/day and D = duration in days) for the rainfall-triggered landslides in Sikkim region and a local threshold of I = 100 D−.92 was developed for the Gangtok area. Furthermore, the influence of antecedent rainfall in landslide initiation is explored by considering the daily, 3-day, 5-day, 7-day, and 20-day cumulative rainfall values associated with landslides. The proposed threshold equations and study of the effect of antecedent rainfall on landslides are intended to aid in enhancing the real-time landslide early warning system (R-LEWS) being developed for Sikkim. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Cite this Research Publication : Harilal, Geethu Thottungal, Dhanya Madhu, Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh, and Divya Pullarkatt. "Towards establishing rainfall thresholds for a real-time landslide early warning system in Sikkim, India." Landslides 16, no. 12 (2019): 2395-2408.

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