Introduction to C language – structure of ‘C’ program, Programming elements(tokens) –Classes of data types –Declaration of variables, assigning values to variables, defining symbolic constants, escape sequences (backslash character constants), Operators–operator precedence and associativity, Expressions – Evaluation of expressions, type conversions(type casting).
Input and Output operations – formatted and unformatted input and output–Conversion specifiers- Conditional and Control structures
Arrays – single dimensional arrays – declaration –memory representation– initialization and access. 2D arrays and multidimensional arrays. Strings – defining strings, initializing, accessing, character handling functions, arithmetic operations on characters, character by character input and output, string handling functions, array of strings and its features. Pointers –Introduction, declaring and initializing pointer variables, pointer expressions, pointers and arrays, pointers and strings, array of pointers.
Functions – definition-declaration-prototypes and function call- actual and formal arguments-types of functions- call by value-call by reference-nesting of functions-recursive functions-pointers to functions-storage class specifiers. Enumerated data types- Preprocessor directives – Macros – File inclusion, Command line arguments.
Structures – definition-declaration-initialization-accessing structures- array of structures, array within structures, structures within structures, self-referential structures, pointers to structures, uses of structures. Union- definition- union of structures. Files – Reading and writing files – file handling functions – file opening modes – file operations