Smart Grid is the new generation power grid technology that can intelligently integrate devices, consumers and generators associated with it. Smart devices are placed throughout the smart grid system which can be automatically controlled using digital technology. This differentiates a smart grid from a traditional grid. Microgrids are the smart distribution grids connected with distributed energy generators, that can operate in islanded mode or in grid-connected mode. The existing grid system in developing nations is suffering due to different problems such as power theft,power faults, power quality, lack of monitoring and controlling distributed generation units, etc. This inversely affects economic growth of anynation.Microgrids promise to solve these problems to a larger extent. Some of the interesting features of microgrid include distributed generation of electricity by integrating distributed renewable energy source, power theft detection, line fault detection, self-healing, advanced metering infrastructure, and automated billing and controlling among others.
In the current electrical network, electricity is generated at a generation station.The generated power is stepped up to a very high voltage and then transmitted to a substation via transmission lines also known as transmission system. From this substation, power is stepped down and distributed to individual consumers. Distribution substations connected to the transmission system lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 6.6kv and 33 kV with the use of transformers. In primary distribution system, distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to distribution transformers located near the customer’s premises. In secondary distribution system distribution transformers again lower the voltage to 430V/ 230V and typically feed several customers through secondary distribution lines. Commercial and residential customers get power through the service lines connected to the secondary distribution lines. In India the power supply to the residential customers is at 230V at 50Hz AC and for commercial customers (like offices, small scale industries etc.) power supply is at 415 V 50Hz. In the distribution system, consumer communicates over separate communication line (telephone line) to the section/ electricity office whenever a fault or any power outage happens. At section office, information such as type of fault and time of fault occurrence etc. are recorded in the registers. Energy consumption meters are installed at each node to monitor the record the energy used by a consumer. Consumers are charged at fixed interval of time, based on their electricity usage. The section office collects the tariff for the energy consumed.
Distribution system consists of large number of physical entities such as distribution poles, distribution transformers, distribution lines, feeders, smart meters etc. Towards a healthy stable distribution system, these entities must be monitored. There are two types of monitoring strategies usually considered; first is the continuous monitoring of only a few entities (mostly critical entities like distribution transformer which may deteriorate due to the atmospheric conditions). Secondtypeis the temporary monitoring of entities in the distribution system. In the temporary monitoring,entities need not be continuously monitored rather during particular or exceptional conditions. For example, monitoring the health of distribution poles, transmission lines etc. which gets damaged occasionally due to natural calamities like floods, cyclones etc.
Objectives of the Project:
This project aims to encourage customers to efficiently utilise the energy and enable a better balance between production and consumption, while ensuring quality of life. Focus is on the smart services that influence energy efficiency user behaviour and the functioning of technical systems. Following aspects of the smart services will be dealt within this project:
To evaluate the benefits of local energy exchange both for consumption andgenerationand the effects on the grid with respect to additional DERs integration (quality-of-service, quality-of-supply) using real data form existing microgrid..
To investigate the effects on the grid when several energy islands connect and disconnect during operation using co-simulation platforms.
To develop a generic machine learning model for smart grid network that will aid in achieving energy management with minimal sensor incorporation. Once the models are trained, the sensors can be removed and put to other location thus saving costs on sensor systems for smart grid applications
To develop a forecast models to predict faults in the power grid.
To develop an event identification model to classification the faults occurred in the power grid.
The smart energy system proposed as part of this project monitors the way users interact with smart devices in their everyday life activities using deep learning techniques, identify how their behavior impacts energy consumption and suggest strategies to reduce such impact.
Kick off Meeting at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham
Date: Dec 7, 2019
Mr. Venkatesh Pampana and Ms. Pragya Gupta, Scientists from Fortiss GmbH visited Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications and spent two weeks at Amritapuri. The Smart Service and Optimisation for Microgrids (SSOM) was officially started on Dec 7 2019. They visited the Systems Lab Demonstrator, Smart Energy Lab and had multiple brainstroming sessions with the Researchers of Amrita Center for Wireless Networks and Applications.