Principles of architectural design: Factors influencing architectural development – characteristic features of style – historic examples – creative principles. Principles of architectural composition – Unity – balance – proportion – scale – rhythm – harmony – Accentuation and contrast.
Organising principles in architecture – Symmetry – hierarchy – axis – linear – concentric, radial – and asymmetric grouping – primary and secondary masses. Role of colour, texture, shapes/ forms in architecture.
Architectural space and mass, visual and emotional effects of geometric forms; activity space and tolerance space. Forms related to materials and structural systems. Architecture as part of the environment.
The Thermal Environment: Climatic elements: climate graph – comparison and classification of climates. Earth’s thermal balance. Thermal balance of human body – thermal comfort indices – comfort zone.
Thermo physical properties of building materials: resistance and transmittance – sol- air temperature - solar gain factor. Heat flow through buildings – thermal transmittance of structural elements - periodic heat flow.
Design criteria for control of climate – passive and active building design – passive approach. Active systems – low energy cooling.
The Luminous Environment: Types of visual tasks – principles of day lighting – evaluation of lighting by windows, skylights – artificial lighting – illumination requirements – lamps and luminaries – coefficient of utilisation – flood lighting of building exteriors.
The Sonic Environment: Physics of sound – airborne and structure borne propagation – behavior of sound in free field and enclosures – design criteria for spaces – acoustical defects – sound reduction, sound insulation and reverberation control.