Objective of ground improvement - In-situ ground improvement methods - Introduction to soil improvements without the addition of many material - surface compaction – compaction piles in sand - impact compaction / dynamic compaction of sands – vibratory compaction in sand - vibroflotation in sand – explosions in sand - Terra probe method - replacement process - vibroflotation in clays - preloading techniques - sand drains - stone columns - introduction to soil improvement by thermal treatment - introduction to biotechnical stabilization.
Introduction to soil improvement by adding materials - lime stabilization – Mechanism - optimum lime content - lime fixation point - effect of lime on physical and engineering properties of soil - lime column method - stabilization of soft clay or silt with lime – stabilization with cement -suitability for soils - effect on properties of soils. Grouting – types - desirable characteristics of grouts - grouting methods - grouting pressure - grouting materials - grouting technology - permeation grouting - compaction grouting - soil fracture grouting - jet grouting - application and limitations - slab jacking, grouted columns - application to dams.
Soil improvement using reinforcing elements - introduction to reinforced earth - load transfer mechanism and strength development - soil types - reinforcing materials - Reinforced earth retaining walls - reinforced embankments - soil nailing.
Geosynthetics – Types - general applications - types of geotextiles and geo-grids - physical and strength properties of geotextiles and geogrids - behaviour of soils on reinforcing with geotextiles and geogrids - design aspects with geotextiles and geogrid.