Course Title: 
Ground Improvement Techniques
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Undergraduate (UG)
School of Engineering

'Ground Improvement Techniques' is a course offered in B. Tech. in Civil Engineering program at School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Unit 1

Objective of ground improvement - In-situ ground improvement methods - Introduction to soil improvements without the addition of many material - surface compaction – compaction piles in sand - impact compaction / dynamic compaction of sands – vibratory compaction in sand - vibroflotation in sand – explosions in sand - Terra probe method - replacement process - vibroflotation in clays - preloading techniques - sand drains - stone columns - introduction to soil improvement by thermal treatment - introduction to biotechnical stabilization.

Unit 2

Introduction to soil improvement by adding materials - lime stabilization – Mechanism - optimum lime content - lime fixation point - effect of lime on physical and engineering properties of soil - lime column method - stabilization of soft clay or silt with lime – stabilization with cement -suitability for soils - effect on properties of soils. Grouting – types - desirable characteristics of grouts - grouting methods - grouting pressure - grouting materials - grouting technology - permeation grouting - compaction grouting - soil fracture grouting - jet grouting - application and limitations - slab jacking, grouted columns - application to dams.

Unit 3

Soil improvement using reinforcing elements - introduction to reinforced earth - load transfer mechanism and strength development - soil types - reinforcing materials - Reinforced earth retaining walls - reinforced embankments - soil nailing.

Geosynthetics – Types - general applications - types of geotextiles and geo-grids - physical and strength properties of geotextiles and geogrids - behaviour of soils on reinforcing with geotextiles and geogrids - design aspects with geotextiles and geogrid.


  • Purushothama Raj.P., “Ground Improvement Techniques”, University Science Press, 2009.
  • Swami Saran., “Reinforced soil and its engineering applications”, I. K. International Pvt Ltd, 2010


  • Moseley and Kirsch, “Text Book on Ground Improvement”, Spon Press, 2004.
  • Shashi K. Gulhati and Manoj Dutta, “Geotechnical Engineering”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.
  • Boweven R., “Text Book on Grouting in Engineering Practice”, John Wiley and Sons, 1981.
  • Jewell R. A., “Soil reinforcement with geotextiles – Special Publication 123”, CIRIA Special Publication, Thomas Telford, 1996.
  • Donald H. Gray and Robbin B. Sotir, “Text Book on Biotechnical & Soil Engineering Slope Stabilization”, Wiley International, 1996.
  • Korener, “Construction & Geotechnical Methods in Foundation Engineering”, McGraw Hill, 1986.
  • Nihar Ranjan Patra, “Ground Improvement Techniques”, Vikas Publishing House, 2012.