Occurrence of ground water: origin - rock properties affecting ground water vertical distribution - geologic formations as aquifers - types of aquifers - aquifer parameters - ground water basins - springs - Laplace equation - potential flow lines - flow net – flownet for anisotropic soils - seepage under a dam - groundwater contours - determination of flow direction - steady unidirectional flows in aquifers - confined and unconfined - aquifer with percolation - steady radial flow towards a well - well in uniform flow - steady flow with uniform discharge - partially penetrating wells - steady flow in leaky aquifer.
Unsteady flow - general equation - Cartesian and polar coordinate - unsteady radial flow in to a well - confined, unconfined and leaky aquifers – multiple well system - pumping tests – non-equilibrium equation for pumping tests - Thies’ method - Jacob method - Chow’s method - characteristics well losses – step draw down test - well near aquifer boundaries - determination of boundaries from pumping test. Image wellsfor various boundary conditions - Cavity well and open well - yield tests - pumping and recuperation test.
Tube wells: design - screened wells - gravel packed wells - well loss - selection of screen size - yield of a well - test holes - well logs - methods of construction - dug wells - shallow tube wells - deep wells - gravity wells - drilling in rocks - screen installation - well completion - well development - testing wells for yield - collector - or radial wells - infiltration galleries - well point system - failure of tube wells.
Ground water investigation methods.