Course Title: 
Physical pharmaceutics I - Theory
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Undergraduate (UG)
School of Pharmacy

'Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II – Theory' is a course offered in the third semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Course Duration: 45 Hours


The course deals with the various physica and physicochemical properties, and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharma- ceutical dosage forms.


Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to

  1. Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms
  2. Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing and determination of expiry date of formulations
  3. Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation development and evaluation of dosage forms.

Unit I (10 Hours)

Solubility of drugs: Solubility expressions, mechanisms of solute solvent interactions, ideal solubility pa- rameters, solvation & association, quantitative approach to the factors influencing solubility of drugs, dif- fusion principles in biological systems. Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, (Binary solutions, ideal solutions) Raoult’s law, real solutions. Partiallymiscible liquids, Critical solution tempera- ture and applications. Distribution law, its limitations and applications

Unit II (10 Hours)

States of Matter and properties of matter:State of matter, changes in the state of matter, latent heats, vapour pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols – inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states, solidcrystalline, amorphous & polymorphism. Physicochemical properties of drug molecules: Refractive index, optical rotation, dielectric constant, dipole moment, disso- ciation constant, determinations and applications

Unit III (09 Hours)

Surface and interfacial phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, sur- face active agents, HLB Scale, solubilisation, detergency, adsorption at solid interface.

Unit IV (08 Hours)

Complexation and protein binding: Introduction, Classification of Complexation, Applications, methods of analysis, protein binding, Complexation and drug action, crystalline structures of complexes and ther- modynamic treatment of stability constants.

Unit V (08 Hours)

pH, buffers and Isotonic solutions: Sorensen’s pH scale, pH determination (electrometric and calorimet- ric), applications of buffers, buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, buffered isotonic solutions.