Publication Type:

Journal Article


Education and Information Technologies, Springer New York LLC, p.1-31 (2017)



Learning theories converge on the principles of reflective learning processes and perceive them as fundamental to effective learning. Traditional laboratory education in science and engineering often happens in highly resource-constrained environments that compromise some of the learning objectives. This paper focuses on characterizing three learning attributes associated with reflective learning i.e. metacognition (M), analogical reasoning (A) and transfer of knowledge (T) and assessed college laboratory education blended with ICT-enabled virtual laboratories. Key contributions of this study include: 1) Development of assessment of MAT attributes using a combination of multiple choice questions, True/False statements and descriptive questions 2) assessment of conceptual learning occurring in the laboratory environment and of learning attributes using Virtual Laboratories (VLs) in classroom education. Feedback data indicated using virtual laboratories in classrooms for training students before using physical laboratories demonstrated a significant improvement (>100% change) in learning in comparison to physical laboratories without VLs. We also show using VLs as pre-lab or post-lab exercise augmented reflective learning and information retention among 145 students in this blended learning case study, compared to an independent control group of 45 students who had no virtual laboratory training. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC


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Cite this Research Publication

K. Achuthan, Francis, S. P., and Dr. Shyam Diwakar, “Augmented reflective learning and knowledge retention perceived among students in classrooms involving virtual laboratories”, Education and Information Technologies, pp. 1-31, 2017.