Publication Type:

Journal Article


Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Volume 18, Number 4, p.539-545 (2011)



animal, animal experiment, animal model, Animal Structures, animal tissue, Animals, Antibodies, antibody response, antibody titer, article, Attenuated, Bacterial, bacterial load, Confocal, controlled study, Disease Models, drug delivery system, Escherichia coli, Humans, immunoglobulin blood level, immunoglobulin G, Inbred BALB C, Injections, Jet, Listeria monocytogenes, mechanical stress, Mice, microscopy, microshock wave, mouse, nonhuman, priority journal, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella Infections, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella Vaccines, salmonellosis, salmonellosis vaccine, shock wave, skin, skin penetration, Survival Analysis, Vaccines


Shock waves are one of the most efficient mechanisms of energy dissipation observed in nature. In this study, utilizing the instantaneous mechanical impulse generated behind a micro-shock wave during a controlled explosion, a novel nonintrusive needleless vaccine delivery system has been developed. It is well-known that antigens in the epidermis are efficiently presented by resident Langerhans cells, eliciting the requisite immune response, making them a good target for vaccine delivery. Unfortunately, needle-free devices for epidermal delivery have inherent problems from the perspective of the safety and comfort of the patient. The penetration depth of less than 100 μm in the skin can elicit higher immune response without any pain. Here we show the efficient utilization of our needleless device (that uses micro-shock waves) for vaccination. The production of liquid jet was confirmed by high-speed microscopy, and the penetration in acrylamide gel and mouse skin was observed by confocal microscopy. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strain pmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07) was delivered using our device in the murine salmonellosis model, and the effectiveness of the delivery system for vaccination was compared with other routes of vaccination. Vaccination using our device elicits better protection and an IgG response even at a lower vaccine dose (10-fold less) compared to other routes of vaccination. We anticipate that our novel method can be utilized for effective, cheap, and safe vaccination in the near future. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


cited By (since 1996)3

Cite this Research Publication

Ga Jagadeesh, Prakash, G. Dab, Rakesh, S. Gac, Allam, U. Sb, Krishna, M. Gb, Eswarappa, S. Mbd, and Chakravortty, Db, “Needleless vaccine delivery using micro-shock waves”, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 18, pp. 539-545, 2011.