Dr. Mahesh K. currently serves as Associate Professor at the Department of Paediatric Cardiology, School of Medicine, Kochi.

QUALIFICATION : DCH, DNB (Paediatrics), FNB (Paediatric Cardiology)


Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title


Journal Article

Dr. Mahesh K., Koneti, N. Rao, Kannan, R. R., Kottayil, B. P., and Kumar, K., “Three-dimensional-printed cardiac prototypes aid surgical decision-making and preoperative planning in selected cases of complex congenital heart diseases: Early experience and proof of concept in a resource-limited environment.”, Ann Pediatr Cardiol, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 117-125, 2017.[Abstract]

INTRODUCTION: Three-dimensional. (3D) printing is an innovative manufacturing process that allows computer-assisted conversion of 3D imaging data into physical "printouts" Healthcare applications are currently in evolution.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and impact of using patient-specific 3D-printed cardiac prototypes derived from high-resolution medical imaging data (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography [MRI/CT]) on surgical decision-making and preoperative planning in selected cases of complex congenital heart diseases (CHDs).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five patients with complex CHD with previously unresolved management decisions were chosen. These included two patients with complex double-outlet right ventricle, two patients with criss-cross atrioventricular connections, and one patient with congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries with pulmonary atresia. Cardiac MRI was done for all patients, cardiac CT for one; specific surgical challenges were identified. Volumetric data were used to generate patient-specific 3D models. All cases were reviewed along with their 3D models, and the impact on surgical decision-making and preoperative planning was assessed.

RESULTS: Accurate life-sized 3D cardiac prototypes were successfully created for all patients. The models enabled radically improved 3D understanding of anatomy, identification of specific technical challenges, and precise surgical planning. Augmentation of existing clinical and imaging data by 3D prototypes allowed successful execution of complex surgeries for all five patients, in accordance with the preoperative planning.

CONCLUSIONS: 3D-printed cardiac prototypes can radically assist decision-making, planning, and safe execution of complex congenital heart surgery by improving understanding of 3D anatomy and allowing anticipation of technical challenges.

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Journal Article

Ra Balachandran, Dr. Mahesh K., Sen, A. Cb, Sudhakar, Ab, Nair, Sa, Dr. Sunil G. S., Raj, Rc, and Kumar, Rb, “Impact of the International Quality Improvement Collaborative on outcomes after congenital heart surgery: A single center experience in a developing economy”, Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia, vol. 18, pp. 52-57, 2015.[Abstract]

Background: The International Quality Improvement Collaborative (IQIC) for Congenital Heart Surgery in Developing Countries was initiated to decrease mortality and major complications after congenital heart surgery in the developing world. Objective: We sought to assess the impact of IQIC on postoperative outcomes after congenital heart surgery at our institution. Methods: The key components of the IQIC program included creation of a robust worldwide database on key outcome measures and nurse education on quality driven best practices using telemedicine platforms. We evaluated 1702 consecutive patients ≤18 years undergoing congenital heart surgery in our institute from January 2010-December 2012 using the IQIC database. Preoperative variables included age, gender, weight at surgery and surgical complexity as per the RACHS-1 model. The outcome variables included, in- hospital mortality, duration of ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, bacterial sepsis and surgical site infection. Results: The 1702 patients included 771(45.3%) females. The median age was 8 months (0.03-216) and the median weight was 6.1Kg (1-100). The overall in-hospital mortality was 3.1%, Over the three years there was a significant decline in bacterial sepsis (from 15.1%, to 9.6%, P < 0.001), surgical site infection (11.1% to 2.4%, P < 0.001) and duration of ICU stay from 114(8-999) hours to 72 (18-999) hours (P < 0.001) The decline in mortality from (4.3% to 2.2%) did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: The inclusion of our institution in the IQIC program was associated with improvement in key outcome measures following congenital heart surgery over a three year period.

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Journal Article

D. Lakshmi Narayanan, Yesodharan, D., Dr. Mahesh K., Kuthiroly, S., Thampi, M. V., Hamza, Z., Anilkumar, A., K Nair, M., Sundaram, K. R., R Krishna Kumar, and , “Cardiac spectrum, cytogenetic analysis and thyroid profile of 418 children with Down syndrome from South India: a cross-sectional study”, The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 81, pp. 547–551, 2014.[Abstract]

Objective To describe the spectrum of congenital heart disease in children with Down syndrome and their cytogenetic profile (and that of parents of those with translocation), and thyroid profile. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 418 consecutive patients with Down syndrome attending the Department of Pediatric Genetics from a tertiary care centre in Kerala with a comprehensive Pediatric Cardiac Program, from November 2005 through April 2012. All children were offered cytogenetic analysis and were subjected to echocardiography. Parental karyotyping was offered for children with translocation type of Down syndrome. The thyroid profiles of all children were checked at the first visit and once every 6 mo during follow up. Results Congenital heart disease was present in 256 (63.4 %) of 404 children with Down syndrome. Ventricular septal defect (72; 28.1 %) was the commonest, followed by atrio-ventricular septal defect (70; 27.3 %) and patent ductus arteriosus (43; 16.8 %). Surgical correction was accomplished in 104 (40.6 %) with excellent intermediate-term outcomes. Three hundred eighty seven of 418 children (92.6 %) underwent cytogenetic tests. The abnormalities included non-disjunction (340, 87.8 %), translocation (33, 8.5 %) and mosaicism (12, 3.1 %). Hypothyroidism was detected in 57 children (13.6 %). More »»


Journal Article

Dr. Rajesh kannan, Dr. Mahesh K., Dr. Sheela Nampoothiri, Malfait, F., De Paepe, A., Moorthy, S., and , “Imaging findings in a distinct lethal inherited arteriopathy syndrome associated with a novel mutation in the FBLN4 gene”, European radiology, vol. 24, pp. 1742–1748, 2014.[Abstract]

Objectives We present the imaging findings of a newly identified lethal arteriopathy associated with a novel mutation in the gene encoding fibulin-4, occurring in a distinct community from southern India. Material and methods A total of 31 children from a distinct population subgroup who presented with characteristic arterial dilatation and tortuosity were studied. All children except one belonged to unrelated families from an ethno-religious group (Muslim) from the northern coastal belt of southern India. CT angiography was performed in 30 children and contrast MRA in one. Results Impressive dilatation and elongation of ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta and main pulmonary arteries with characteristic narrowing of aortic isthmus were seen in all patients. Stenosis of arch branches, abdominal visceral branches and pulmonary artery branches was observed in 21 (68 %), 23 (62.5 %) and 20 (65 %) patients respectively. Genetic studies revealed an identical mutation in exon 7 of the FBLN4 gene. On follow-up, 27 of them had died before the age of 3 years and only two children were alive after the age of 4 years. Conclusions FBLN4-associated vasculopathy is a highly lethal disease characterized by severe aneurysmal dilatation of thoracic aorta, its branches and pulmonary arteries with stenoses at typical locations. More »»

NIRF 2017