Dr. Vinayan K. P. currently serves as Professor at the Department of Neurolgy, School of Medicine, Kochi.


Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title


Journal Article

Y. Singh Sudan, Dr. Vinayan K. P., Roy, A. Grace, Wagh, A., Dr. Sudheeran Kannoth, and Patil, S., “Clinical Characteristics and Follow-up of South Indian Children with Autoimmune Encephalopathy.”, Indian J Pediatr, vol. 83, no. 12-13, pp. 1367-1373, 2016.[Abstract]

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of a cohort of south Indian children with probable autoimmune encephalopathy from a tertiary care academic hospital and to compare this data with the existing literature. METHODS: Patients with encephalopathy plus one or more of neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, movement disorder or cognitive dysfunction were identified. Common infectious causes were excluded. Clinical characteristics, investigations, management and outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included in the study; 12 were females (92.3 %) and mean age was 9.6 y. Most common presentation was behavior change (13 patients) followed by seizures (11 patients). Three patients showed lymphocytic pleocytosis in CSF and one patient had oligoclonal bands. Initial MRI was normal in all patients except in one. Most common EEG abnormality was mild background slowing. Only one child had ovarian tumor. S.NMDA receptor antibody was positive in 10 patients (83 %), and all of them received immunotherapy. Six out of 13 children were followed up for more than 1 y (mean - 21 mo). Recurrence was noted in 4 out of 6 patients (66 %). On last follow-up, good recovery was seen in 2 children (33 %), moderate disability in 3 (50 %) and severe disability in 1 (16 %). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics and outcome of one of the largest single center cohort of Indian children with autoimmune encephalopathy is reported. Autoimmune encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the acute and subacute encephalopathies of childhood and treating pediatrician should be aware of this entity. More »»


Journal Article

S. Gopinath, Roy, A. Grace, Dr. Vinayan K. P., Kumar, A., Sarma, M., Dr. Rajesh kannan, and Pillai, A., “Seizure outcome following primary motor cortex-sparing resective surgery for perirolandic focal cortical dysplasia.”, International Journal of Surgery, vol. 36, no. Pt B, pp. 466-476, 2016.[Abstract]

OBJECTIVES: We present a case series of patients who underwent perirolandic resection for medically refractory focal epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Our aim was to specifically evaluate the outcome of a surgical strategy intended for seizure freedom while preserving primary motor cortex function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients undergoing perirolandic resection for pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy between 2010 and 2015 who demonstrated histological evidence of FCD were selected from a prospectively maintained database. Presurgical evaluation included video EEG telemetry and 3T MRI brain for all patients. Eight patients underwent interictal FDG PET scan. Intracranial EEG monitoring was done for 8 patients - six by conventional subdural grid and depth electrodes and two by Stereo EEG. Additional techniques included extraoperative cortical stimulation mapping, intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG), intraoperative motor cortex mapping and awake surgery in various combinations. In all cases (lesional and nonlesional), resection was intentionally limited for anatomic preservation of the primary motor cortex. RESULTS: Amongst the thirteen patients with age ranging 14-44 years (mean 26.8 ± 9.2) 62% of them had daily seizures. MRI abnormalities were identified in 8 patients (62%), PET showed concordant findings in 7 patients (88%). When utilized, the mean duration of intracranial EEG recordings was 8.0 ± 7.2 days (range 2-23 days). All patients underwent a primary motor cortex-sparing resection of the suspected epileptogenic cortex. The mean postoperative follow up period was 23 months (range 7.5-62 months). Twelve out of 13 (92%) were seizure free (Engel 1) outcome at the last follow-up assessment; one patient had Engel 2a outcome at 28 months. Six patients (46%) had immediate new focal neurological deficits, however all six patients had recovered completely within three months. CONCLUSION: The surgical strategy of a primary motor cortex-sparing resective surgery for perirolandic FCD is associated with an excellent early seizure-freedom rate and no permanent neurological deficits. Since the ultimate goal of resective epilepsy surgery is seizure freedom with simultaneous functional preservation, similar long term outcome studies should ultimately guide the resection strategy. More »»


Journal Article

J. Ma Wilmshurst, Gaillard, W. Db, Dr. Vinayan K. P., Tsuchida, T. Nd, Plouin, Pe, Van Bogaert, Pf, Carrizosa, Jg, Elia, Mh, Craiu, Dij, Jovic, N. Jk, Nordli, Dl, Hirtz, Dm, Wong, Vno, Glauser, Tp, Mizrahi, E. Mqr, and Cross, J. Hs, “Summary of recommendations for the management of infantile seizures: Task Force Report for the ILAE Commission of Pediatrics”, Epilepsia, 2015.[Abstract]

<p>Evidence-based guidelines, or recommendations, for the management of infants with seizures are lacking. A Task Force of the Commission of Pediatrics developed a consensus document addressing diagnostic markers, management interventions, and outcome measures for infants with seizures. Levels of evidence to support recommendations and statements were assessed using the American Academy of Neurology Guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The report contains recommendations for different levels of care, noting which would be regarded as standard care, compared to optimal care, or "state of the art" interventions. The incidence of epilepsy in the infantile period is the highest of all age groups (strong evidence), with epileptic spasms the largest single subgroup and, in the first 2 years of life, febrile seizures are the most commonly occurring seizures. Acute intervention at the time of a febrile seizure does not alter the risk for subsequent epilepsy (class 1 evidence). The use of antipyretic agents does not alter the recurrence rate (class 1 evidence), and there is no evidence to support initiation of regular antiepileptic drugs for simple febrile seizures (class 1 evidence). Infants with abnormal movements whose routine electroencephalography (EEG) study is not diagnostic, would benefit from video-EEG analysis, or home video to capture events (expert opinion, level U recommendation). Neuroimaging is recommended at all levels of care for infants presenting with epilepsy, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) recommended as the standard investigation at tertiary level (level A recommendation). Genetic screening should not be undertaken at primary or secondary level care (expert opinion). Standard care should permit genetic counseling by trained personal at all levels of care (expert opinion). Genetic evaluation for Dravet syndrome, and other infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathies, should be available in tertiary care (weak evidence, level C recommendation). Patients should be referred from primary or secondary to tertiary level care after failure of one antiepileptic drug (standard care) and optimal care equates to referral of all infants after presentation with a seizure (expert opinion, level U evidence). Infants with recurrent seizures warrant urgent assessment for initiation of antiepileptic drugs (expert opinion, level U recommendation). Infantile encephalopathies should have rapid introduction and increment of antiepileptic drug dosage (expert opinion, level U recommendation). There is no high level evidence to support any particular current agents for use in infants with seizures. For focal seizures, levetiracetam is effective (strong evidence); for generalized seizures, weak evidence supports levetiracetam, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate, and clobazam; for Dravet syndrome, strong evidence supports that stiripentol is effective (in combination with valproate and clobazam), whereas weak evidence supports that topiramate, zonisamide, valproate, bromide, and the ketogenic diet are possibly effective; and for Ohtahara syndrome, there is weak evidence that most antiepileptic drugs are poorly effective. For epileptic spasms, clinical suspicion remains central to the diagnosis and is supported by EEG, which ideally is prolonged (level C recommendation). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is preferred for short-term control of epileptic spasms (level B recommendation), oral steroids are probably effective in short-term control of spasms (level C recommendation), and a shorter interval from the onset of spasms to treatment initiation may improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcome (level C recommendation). The ketogenic diet is the treatment of choice for epilepsy related to glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (expert opinion, level U recommendation). The identification of patients as potential candidates for epilepsy surgery should be part of standard practice at primary and secondary level care. Tertiary care facilities with experience in epilepsy surgery should undertake the screening for epilepsy surgical candidates (level U recommendation). There is insufficient evidence to conclude if there is benefit from vagus nerve stimulation (level U recommendation). The key recommendations are summarized into an executive summary. The full report is available as Supporting Information. This report provides a comprehensive foundation of an approach to infants with seizures, while identifying where there are inadequate data to support recommended practice, and where further data collection is needed to address these deficits. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.</p>

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NIRF 2017