Publication Type:

Journal Article


Progress in Materials Science, Volume 58, Number 6, p.874-985 (2013)



Band gap engineering, Binding energy, Defects, Doping different elements, Electron mobility, Energy gap, Exciton-binding energy, Growth (materials), Growth techniques, High electron mobility, Hydrogen incorporation, Materials, Optoelectronic devices, Room temperature ferromagnetism, Self-compensation, Semiconductor doping, Semiconductor quantum wells, zinc, Zinc oxide


In the past 10 years, ZnO as a semiconductor has attracted considerable attention due to its unique properties, such as high electron mobility, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy. ZnO has been considered a promising material for optoelectronic device applications, and the fabrications of high quality p-type ZnO and p-n junction are the key steps to realize these applications. However, the reliable p-type doping of the material remains a major challenge because of the self-compensation from native donor defects (VO and Zni) and/or hydrogen incorporation. Considerable efforts have been made to obtain p-type ZnO by doping different elements with various techniques. Remarkable progresses have been achieved, both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, we discuss p-type ZnO materials: theory, growth, properties and devices, comprehensively. We first discuss the native defects in ZnO. Among the native defects in ZnO, VZn and O i act as acceptors. We then present the theory of p-type doping in ZnO, and summarize the growth techniques for p-type ZnO and the properties of p-type ZnO materials. Theoretically, the principles of selection of p-type dopant, codoping method and XZn-2VZn acceptor model are introduced. Experimentally, besides the intrinsic p-type ZnO grown at O-rich ambient, p-type ZnO (MgZnO) materials have been prepared by various techniques using Group-I, IV and V elements. We pay a special attention to the band gap of p-type ZnO by band-gap engineering and room temperature ferromagnetism observed in p-type ZnO. Finally, we summarize the devices based on p-type ZnO materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


cited By (since 1996)7

Cite this Research Publication

J. Cab Fan, Dr. Sreekanth K. M., Xie, Zd, Chang, S. Le, and Rao, K. Va, “P-Type ZnO materials: Theory, growth, properties and devices”, Progress in Materials Science, vol. 58, pp. 874-985, 2013.