Snake envenomation is still a serious threat to many countries in the world. The only mainstay treatment depends on the administration of animal derived immunoglobulin based antivenom. Significant limitations to these antivenoms are a challenge in the treatment of snake envenomation. Many alternate approaches have been explored to overcome the limitations of antivenom. Exploring alternate approaches like use of bioactive components from plant sources, use of peptide and small molecule inhibitors are some aspects taken towards improving the current limitations of antivenom therapy. However, all these alternate approaches also have many drawbacks which should be improved by more in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, we review some of the limitations of current antivenom therapy and developments as well as drawbacks of these alternate treatment strategies.
A. Alangode, Karthika Rajan, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Snake antivenom: Challenges and alternate approaches”, Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 181, p. 114135, 2020.