Publication Type:

Journal Article


Social Indicators Research, Volume 134, Number 3, p.1077–1112 (2017)



This study hypothesizes a relationship between ethnic diversity and health outcomes. We explore the effects of ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity (measured by indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization) on various health outcomes in a cross-section of 91 countries. We explore outcomes relating to four major categories of health: (1) immunization rates, (2) prevalence of diseases, (3) life expectancy and mortality rates, and (4) health related infrastructure and staff. Across all dimensions examined, evidence suggests that higher heterogeneity is bad for health outcomes. We explore several potential mechanisms which could explain the observed negative effects of ethnic and linguistic diversity on health.

Cite this Research Publication

Sefa Awaworyi Churchill, Ocloo, J. Exornam, and Siawor-Robertson, D., “Ethnic Diversity and Health Outcomes”, Social Indicators Research, vol. 134, pp. 1077–1112, 2017.