Dr. Rakesh S. currently serves as Vice Principal, HOD & Professor in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology & Microbiology, Amrita School of Dentistry, AIMS Health Sciences Campus, Kochi.

He joined Amrita School of Dentistry in February 2003. He obtained his B. D. S. degree from Rajah Muthiah Dental College, Tamil Nadu and completed his M. D. S. degree from Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore. He has over 11 years of academic experience which includes undergraduate and postgraduate teaching, research and clinics.

His areas of interest include Dental Caries and Forensic Odontology. Dr. Rakesh has been instrumental in giving shape to the department of Oral Pathology in the Dental School, since its inception in 2003.

Dr. Rakesh has presented and published papers in national and international forums. In addition to his role as Professor and Head at the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, he is also the Assistant Controller of Examinations at the AIMS Health Sciences campus, Kochi since July 2007. He is in-charge of co-ordinating and supervising conduct of all undergraduate and postgraduate medical and dental exams of the Health Sciences Campus in association with the Exam Control Division.

He is a member of the Reviewer Panel in the International Journal of Dental Hygiene, Indian Journal of Dental Research (IJDR), International Medical Case reports Journal and Universal Journal of Medicine and Dentistry.


Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title


M. Janardhanan, Dr. Rakesh S., Savithri, V., and Thara Aravind, “Peripheral Ameloblastoma with Neoplastic Osseous Invasion Versus Peripheral Intraosseous Ameloblastoma: A Challenging Diagnosis”, J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 396-400, 2018.[Abstract]

Peripheral ameloblastoma, a soft-tissue analogue of intraosseous ameloblastoma, is a rare odontogenic tumor with histologic characteristics of ameloblastoma. In contrast to conventional ameloblastoma, peripheral ameloblastomas are considered as innocuous lesions which usually do not show invasion of the underlying structures. Rarely, intraosseous ameloblastoma which penetrates the alveolar bone can fuse with the overlying oral epithelium and eventually manifest as an exophytic peripheral lesion. Such lesions which mimic peripheral ameloblastoma both clinically and microscopically are termed as peripheral intraosseous ameloblastoma. As per the existing criteria, soft-tissue ameloblastomas showing bone invasion are strictly excluded from the category of peripheral ameloblastoma and are considered as peripheral intraosseous ameloblastoma. We report a rare case of extraosseous ameloblastoma with clear origin from the superficial epithelium showing the presence of a few odontogenic islands in the underlying bone suggestive of a neoplastic osseous invasion. This paper discusses the diagnostic challenges associated with peripherally occurring ameloblastomas and stresses the need for accurate diagnosis in deciding the treatment modalities

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V. Savithri, Dr. Rakesh S., Janardhanan, M., and Thara Aravind, “Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of Mandible: in Search of the Primary”, BMJ Case Rep, vol. 11, no. 1, 2018.[Abstract]

We present here a case of a 64-year-old female patient who reported with a complaint of pain in the chin region of 3-month duration. The radiographs revealed an irregular radiolucent lesion in the anterior part of the mandible. An incisional biopsy was carried out and the microscopy showed features of adenocarcinoma. Suspecting a metastatic lesion, the patient was then sent for whole body examination which showed a mass in the lungs. A whole body scan also showed metastasis to other organs such as kidney, gallbladder and vertebrae. This case is unusual in that the patient complained only of a vague jaw pain with no other systemic symptoms even in the presence of widespread disease.

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T. Aravind, Janardhanan, M., Dr. Rakesh S., Savithri, V., and Unnikrishnan, U. G., “Immunolocalization of osteopontin in dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas arising from oral epithelium”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 21, pp. 18-23, 2017.[Abstract]

Background: Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains one of the most efficient ways to ensure patient survival and improved quality of life. Although specific biomarkers related to OSCC have been investigated, a useful biomarker that assesses the transition potential of potentially malignant lesion to OSCC remains to be found. Osteopontin (OPN) has been recognized as an important factor in tumorigenesis and their expression in OSCC have been investigated earlier. In the present study, evaluation of OPN expression in premalignant and malignant lesions has been carried out to assess their possible role as a biomarker in the early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of OPN as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of archival paraffin-embedded blocks of ten cases each of varying grades of OSCC, oral epithelial dysplasias and epithelial hyperplasias. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the biomarker OPN. Results: A positive OPN expression was noticed in epithelial dysplasias and SCC arising from the oral epithelium. A progressive increase in the intensity of staining was seen with increasing grades of dysplasias and a decrease in OPN expression with an increase in grades was observed in OSCC. Conclusion: The expression of OPN in full thickness of epithelium in severe dysplasias, carcinoma in situ, and in the superficial epithelium of OSCC suggest the possibility of considering OPN expression in full epithelial thickness in dysplasias as an indicator for malignant transformation. © 2017 Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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V. Savithri, Janardhanan, M., Dr. Rakesh S., and Kumar, R., “Desmoplastic ameloblastoma with osteoplasia: Review of literature with a case report”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 17, pp. 298-301, 2013.[Abstract]

Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a relatively rare histological variant of ameloblastoma with specific clinical, radiological, and histological features. This tumor is more commonly seen in the anterior region of jaws as a mixed radiopaque-radiolucent lesion resembling benign fibro-osseous lesions. Histologically, DA is characterized by small nests and strands of «compressed» odontogenic epithelium supported by pronounced collagenized stroma. Metaplastic bone formation has been reported in few cases. This report describes a lesion in the left anterior maxilla of a young female patient.

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PDF icon Desmoplastic-Ameloblastoma-with-Osteoplasia-Review-of-Literature-With-a-Case-Report.pdf


Dr. Rakesh S., Janardhanan, M., Joseph, A. Pa, Vinodkumar, R. Ba, and Peter, Sb, “A Rare Case of Dentigerous Cyst in a One Year Old Child: The Earliest Known Reported Occurrence”, Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 5, pp. 171-174, 2011.[Abstract]

Dentigerous cysts are developmental odontogenic jaw cysts, commonly manifesting in the second and third decades of life. Very few of these cysts have been reported in children younger than 10 years of age. This article describes a rare case of dentigerous cyst in a 1-year-old boy, the youngest case to be documented. The clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features are discussed; the increased possibility of occurrence of these cysts at a very young age and the importance of timely diagnosis of such cysts to avoid future complications is emphasized. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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PDF icon A-Rare-Case-of-Dentigerous-Cyst-in-a-One-Year-Old-Child-The-Earliest-Known-Reported-Occurrence.pdf


M. Janardhanan, Dr. Rakesh S., and Kumar, R. B. V., “Intraoral presentation of multiple malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors associated with neurofibromatosis-1”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 15, pp. 46-51, 2011.[Abstract]

Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) is a relatively common autosomal dominant disease characterized by multiple cutaneous fibromatoses and café au lait spots. It is associated with the mutation of NF-1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17q11.2. Hence, it can be considered as a familial cancer predisposition syndrome in which the affected individuals are at increased risk of developing malignancies. Intraoral neurofibromas associated with NF-1 are quite common, but the occurrence of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in the oral cavity is very rare. Oral MPNST can occur either de novo or by malignant transformation of neurofibromas or very rarely can represent a metastatic lesion. Here, we present a case of MPNST involving the maxillary region, in a patient with NF-1. Since MPNST often creates a diagnostic dilemma, histopathologic criteria for the diagnosis of MPNST are also discussed.

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PDF icon Intraoral-Presentation-of-Multiple-Malignant-Peripheral-Nerve-Sheath-Tumors-Associated-with-Neurofibromatosis-1.pdf

Faculty Research Interest: