Qualification: 
Ph.D, M.Tech, BDS
sowmyasrinivasan@aims.amrita.edu

Dr. Sowmya Srinivasan currently serves as Research Scientist & ICMR Research Associate Fellow in the Department of Periodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Health Sciences Campus, Kochi.

Dr. Sowmya Srinivasan obtained her BDS degree from SRM Dental College, SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu with Grade A in 2007.  She worked as a dental surgeon at RR Dental Hospital, Chennai till 2008. She then completed M Tech in Nanomedical Sciences with distinction in 2010 from Amrita Centre for Nanosciences & Molecular Medicine, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala. She obtained PhD in Dental Tissue Engineering in 2016 from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala.

She has been working as a Research Scientist at Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi since 2017. Her job is to help & provide research guidance to dental faculties and post-graduate students for planning and executing research studies. Also provide assistance for manuscript writing and research proposal preparation for government & non-government funding agencies.

Her research interests include dental tissue engineering, 3D printing, stem cell isolation and culture from dental and non-dental sources, periodontal and pulp regeneration, in vivo animal model development and surgery. Her skills include isolation, culture and differentiation of periodontal, pulp and dental follicle stem cells into specific lineages; fabrication of nanomaterials, composites, bioceramics, scaffolds, hydrogels, 3D printed biomaterials for dental, bone and regenerative medicine applications; biochemical  & cell-based assays, immunocytochemistry, isolation of growth factors from platelet rich plasma (PRP), microbial culture and evaluation of antibacterial activity. She has hands-on experience in immunofluorescent analysis, flow cytometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-VIS spectrometry, freeze-dryer (lyophilizer), fluorescent microscopy, plate reader.

Her PhD dissertation was focused on the “development of biocompatible trilayered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold for periodontal regeneration.”

She serves as a reviewer for several international journals. She has 18 publications to her credit with a h-index of 17 and total citations above 1500.

Education and Professional Experience

  • 2017 - Present: Research Scientist, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi
  • 2010 - 2016: Ph. D. in Dental Tissue Engineering from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi (CGPA of 9.33 out of 10)
  • 2008 - 2010: M. Tech. in Nanomedical Sciences, Amrita Centre for Nanosciences & Molecular Medicine, Kochi (CGPA of 8.5 out of 10)
  • 2007 - 2008: Dental Surgeon, RR Dental Hospital, Chennai
  • 2002 - 2007: BDS, SRM Dental College, Chennai

Publications

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Title

2019

Sowmya Srinivasan, “Nanohybrid scaffold structures for smart drug delivery applications”, in Biomimetic Nanoengineered Materials for Advanced Drug Delivery, A. Rajan Unnithan, Sasikala, A. Ramachandr, Park, C. Hee, and Kim, C. Sang, Eds. Elsevier, 2019, pp. 53 - 59.[Abstract]


In the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, a scaffold is an essential component that provides structural and functional support for tissue formation and regeneration. In addition, scaffolds also serve as efficient carriers and delivery vehicles for innumerable drug delivery applications. A wide range of polymers are being explored to engineer scaffolds as carriers for drugs. Based on the clinical requirement, the scaffold's properties can be tuned for site-specific delivery, sustained or controlled release, reduced concentration and dosing frequency, improved efficiency, and minimal side effects. Research is also being focused on the combinative approach of drug delivery and tissue engineering, which may offer a higher therapeutic effect from a clinical perspective. In order to achieve a therapeutic effect, the release of drug from the scaffold or carrier is crucial. Stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems can be modulated as per the therapeutic need at the site of action, thereby offering advantages over conventional systems. This chapter provides an insight into stimuli-responsive drug delivery under the influence of physiochemical properties, electrical stimulation, and magnetic stimulation.

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Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2017

V. Selvaprithviraj, Sankar, D., Sivashanmugam, A., Sowmya Srinivasan, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Pro-angiogenic Molecules for Therapeutic Angiogenesis.”, Curr Med Chem, vol. 24, no. 31, pp. 3413-3432, 2017.[Abstract]


<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>Therapeutic angiogenesis is a clinical intervention for controlled stimulation and augmentation of neovascularisation in ischemic tissues. Conventional therapeutic techniques involve proangiogenic factor based induction of host tissue angiogenesis. In this review, we provide a holistic idea about therapeutic angiogenesis while specifically highlighting the role of proangiogenic factors as growth factors, peptides, small molecules and polysaccharides in tissue neovascularisation.</p><p><b>METHODS: </b>A detailed search of peer-reviewed literature was carried out with prime focus on therapeutic angiogenesis and proangiogenic factors. The content of each literature reviewed in this paper was qualitatively analysed for particulars and relevance to the subject of study. This work has been distributed under four broad titles, namely, proangiogenic growth factors, peptides, small molecules and polysaccharides. Also, recent developments pertaining to proangiogenic factors for therapeutic angiogenesis have been detailed.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>A total of 244 literatures have been reviewed from the bibliographic database to present a conceptual understanding about the importance of proangiogenic factors in revascularisation of ischemic tissues.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION: </b>This review focuses on importance of various proangiogenic factors, with reference to therapeutic angiogenesis. Thorough analysis of clinical data reveals the dearth of a defined system for proangiogenic growth factor delivery. Designing of a biomaterial based paradigm for growth factor therapy, might help in enhancing clinical translation of therapeutic angiogenesis.</p>

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2016

Nivedhitha Sundaram M., Sowmya Srinivasan, Deepthi, S., Bumgardener, J. D., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Bilayered Construct for Simultaneous Regeneration of Alveolar Bone and Periodontal Ligament”, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials, 2016.[Abstract]


Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that causes destruction of tooth-supporting tissues and if left untreated leads to tooth loss. Current treatments have shown limited potential for simultaneous regeneration of the tooth-supporting tissues. To recreate the complex architecture of the periodontium, we developed a bilayered construct consisting of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) multiscale electrospun membrane (to mimic and regenerate periodontal ligament, PDL) and a chitosan/2wt % CaSO<inf>4</inf> scaffold (to mimic and regenerate alveolar bone). Scanning electron microscopy results showed the porous nature of the scaffold and formation of beadless electrospun multiscale fibers. The fiber diameter of microfiber and nanofibers was in the range of 10±3 μm and 377±3 nm, respectively. The bilayered construct showed better protein adsorption compared to the control. Osteoblastic differentiation of human dental follicle stem cells (hDFCs) on chitosan/2wt % CaSO<inf>4</inf> scaffold showed maximum alkaline phosphatase at seventh day followed by a decline thereafter when compared to chitosan control scaffold. Fibroblastic differentiation of hDFCs was confirmed by the expression of PLAP-1 and COL-1 proteins which were more prominent on PCL multiscale membrane in comparison to control membranes. Overall these results show that the developed bilayered construct might serve as a good candidate for the simultaneous regeneration of the alveolar bone and PDL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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2015

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Sowmya Srinivasan, P, C. K., H, A., P, J., and Shantikumar V Nair, “Periodontal Specific Differentiation of Dental Follicle Stem Cells into Osteoblast, Fibroblast and Cementoblast”, Tissue Engineering-C: Methods, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1044-1058, 2015.[Abstract]


The dental follicle is a source of dental follicle stem cells (DFCs), which have the potential to differentiate into the periodontal lineage. DFCs therefore are of value in dental tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth factor type and concentration on DFC differentiation into periodontal specific lineages. DFCs were isolated from the human dental follicle and characterized for the expression of mesenchymal markers. The cells were positive for CD-73, CD-44, and CD-90; and negative for CD-33, CD-34, and CD-45. The expression of CD-29 and CD-31 was almost negligible. The cells also expressed periodontal ligament and cementum markers such as periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and cementum protein-1 (CEMP-1), however, the expression of osteoblast markers was absent. Further, the DFCs were cultured in three different induction medium to analyze the osteoblastic, fibroblastic, and cementoblastic differentiation. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin staining, calcium quantification, collagen type-1 (Col-1), and osteopontin (OPN) expression confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of DFCs. DFCs cultured in recombinant human FGF-2 (rhFGF-2) containing medium showed enhanced PLAP-1, FGF-2, and COL-1 expression with increasing concentration of rhFGF-2 which thereby confirmed periodontal ligament fibroblastic differentiation. Similarly, DFCs cultured in recombinant human cementum protein-1 (rhCEMP-1) containing medium showed enhanced bone sialoprotein-2 (BSP-2), CEMP-1, and COL-1 expression with respect to rhCEMP-1 which confirmed cementoblastic differentiation. The expression of osteoblast, fibroblast, and cementoblast-related genes of DFCs cultured in induction medium was enhanced in comparison to DFCs cultured in noninduction medium. Thus, growth factor-dependent differentiation of DFCs into periodontal specific lineages was proved by quantitative analysis.

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2014

A. Anitha, Sowmya Srinivasan, Kumar, P. T. S., Deepthi, S., Chennazhi, K. P., Ehrlich, H., Tsurkan, M., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitin and Chitosan in Selected Biomedical Applications”, Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 39, pp. 1644-1667, 2014.[Abstract]


Chitin (CT), the well-known natural biopolymer and chitosan (CS) (bio-based or "artificial polymer") are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible in nature. The advantages of these biomaterials are such that, they can be easily processed into different forms such as membranes, sponges, gels, scaffolds, microparticles, nanoparticles and nanofibers for a variety of biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene therapy, tissue engineering and wound healing. Present review focuses on the diverse applications of CT and CS membranes and scaffolds for drug delivery, tissue engineering and targeted regenerative medicine. The chitinous scaffolds of marine sponges' origin are discussed here for the first time. These CT based scaffolds obtained from Porifera possess remarkable and unique properties such as hydration, interconnected channels and diverse structural architecture. This review will provide a brief overview of CT and CS membranes and scaffolds toward different kinds of delivery applications such as anticancer drug delivery, osteogenic drug delivery, and growth factor delivery, because of their inimitable release behavior, degradation profile, mucoadhesive nature, etc. The review also provides an overview of the key features of CT and CS membranes and scaffolds such as their biodegradability, cytocompatibility and mechanical properties toward applications in tissue engineering and wound healing.

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2014

S. N. Reddy, Sowmya Srinivasan, Bumgardner, J. D., Chennazhi, K. P., Dr. Raja Biswas, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Tetracycline Nanoparticles Loaded Calcium Sulfate Composite Beads for Periodontal Management”, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, vol. 1840, pp. 2080-2090, 2014.[Abstract]


<h4>Background</h4>

<p>The objective of this study was to fabricate, characterize and evaluate in vitro, an injectable calcium sulfate bone cement beads loaded with an antibiotic nanoformulation, capable of delivering antibiotic locally for the treatment of periodontal disease.</p>

<h4>Methods</h4>

<p>Tetracycline nanoparticles (Tet NPs) were prepared using an ionic gelation method and characterized using DLS, SEM, and FTIR to determine size, morphology, stability and chemical interaction of the drug with the polymer. Further, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) control and CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads were prepared and characterized using SEM, FTIR and XRD. The drug release pattern, material properties and antibacterial activity were evaluated. In addition, protein adsorption, cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of the CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads in comparison to the CaSO4control were analyzed.</p>

<h4>Results</h4>

<p>Tet NPs showed a size range of 130&nbsp;±&nbsp;20&nbsp;nm and the entrapment efficiency calculated was 89%. The composite beads showed sustained drug release pattern. Further the drug release data was fitted into various kinetic models wherein the Higuchi model showed higher correlation value (R2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.9279) as compared to other kinetic models. The composite beads showed antibacterial activity against&nbsp;Staphylococcus aureus&nbsp;and&nbsp;Escherichia coli. The presence of Tet NPs in the composite bead didn't alter its cytocompatibility. In addition, the composite beads enhanced the ALP activity of hPDL cells.</p>

<h4>Conclusions</h4>

<p>The antibacterial and cytocompatible CaSO4-Tet NP composite beads could be beneficial in periodontal management to reduce the bacterial load at the infection site.</p>

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2013

K. T. Shalumon, Sowmya Srinivasan, Sathish, D., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Effect of incorporation of nanoscale bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in PCL/chitosan nanofibers for bone and periodontal tissue engineering”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 430-440, 2013.[Abstract]


A biomimetic scaffold which can very closely mimic the extracellular matrix of the bone was fabricated by incorporating nano-bioceramic particles such as nano bioglass (nBG) and nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) within electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. A comparative study between nHAp incorporated poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-chitosan (CS) and nBG incorporated PCL-CS nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out and their feasibility in tissue engineering was investigated. All the samples were optimized to obtain fibers of similar diameter from 100-200 nm for the ease of comparison between the samples. Protein adsorption studies showed that PCL-CS incorporated with 3 wt% nHAp and 3 wt% nBG adsorbed more proteins on their surface than other samples. Cell attachment and proliferation studies using human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPLFs) and osteoblast like cells (MG-63 cell lines) showed that nBG incorporated samples are slightly superior to nHAp incorporated counterparts. Cell viability test using alamar blue assay and live/dead staining confirms that the scaffolds are cytocompatible. ALP activity confirmed the osteoblastic behavior of hPDLFs. Also the presence of nHAp and nBG enhanced the ALP activity of hPDLF on the PCH3 and PCB3 scaffolds. These studies indicate that nBG incorporated electrospun scaffolds are comparatively better candidates for orthopedic and periodontal tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

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2013

Sowmya Srinivasan, Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, Nair, S. V., Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Antibacterial and bioactive α- And β-chitin hydrogel/ nanobioactive glass ceramic/nano silver composite scaffolds for periodontal regeneration”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 1803-1816, 2013.[Abstract]


Alveolar bone loss and bone defects are the commonly encountered periodontal problems. Large defects do not heal spontaneously and thus require surgical interventions with bone substitutes. Bone grafts have the disadvantages of eliciting an immunologic response with subsequent graft rejection. The success rate of Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is variable because of high susceptibility to infection. Thus emerged the important role of synthetic biomaterials and hence for this purpose we developed a nanocomposite scaffold, using α- and β-chitin hydrogel with bioactive glass ceramic nanoparticles (nBGC) and silver nanoparticles (nAg) by lyophilization technique (α- and β-chitin hydrogel/nBGC/nAg nanocomposite scaffold). The prepared nanoparticles and nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized. In addition, the porosity, swelling, mechanical properties, antibacterial activity, in vitro degradation and biomineralization, cell viability, cell attachment and cell proliferation ability of the prepared composite scaffolds were also evaluated. The results showed that α- and β-chitin/nBGC/nAg composite scaffolds were porous and have the capacity to absorb fluids and swell. The composite scaffolds also showed enhanced antibacterial activity, bioactivity and controlled degradation in comparison to the control scaffolds. Cell viability studies proved the non-toxic nature of the nanocomposite scaffolds. Cell attachment and cell proliferation studies revealed the attachment and spreading nature of cells. All these studies revealed that, these antibacterial nanocomposite scaffolds could be a promising approach for the management of periodontal defects. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

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2013

Sowmya Srinivasan, Bumgardener, J. D., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Role of Nanostructured Biopolymers and Bioceramics in Enamel, Dentin and Periodontal Tissue Regeneration”, Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 38, pp. 1748-1772, 2013.[Abstract]


Tissue engineering approach focuses on the regeneration of deficient or damaged tissues of the body. Regeneration of dental tissues is considered as a promising therapeutic approach in dental tissue engineering. Engineering the environment for developing tissues comprises of biomaterials, growth factors, stem cells and regulation of physiological conditions in a spatial and temporal manner. To enhance the structural stability and bioactivity of polymers, a wide variety of nanomaterials are being utilized in dental regenerative medicine. Nanostructured biopolymers in the form of scaffolds, hydrogels, nanofibers, dendrimers, films, etc. and nanostructured bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass ceramic/bioglass, etc. in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals, nanorods, paste, etc. are being exploited in the simultaneous regeneration of hard and soft tissues of the human body. In the dental area, these different forms closely mimic the natural constituents and framework of the dental tissues, namely enamel, dentin and periodontium. Overall this review essentially focuses on the role of polymeric and ceramic nanomaterials in the area of dental tissue engineering, highlighting their specific applications in enamel, dentin and periodontal regeneration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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2012

Sowmya Srinivasan, Jayasree, R., Chennazhi, K. P., Shantikumar V. Nair, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Biocompatible alginate/nano bioactive glass ceramic composite scaffolds for periodontal tissue regeneration”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 274-283, 2012.[Abstract]


Periodontal regeneration is of utmost importance in the field of dentistry which essentially reconstitutes and replaces the lost tooth supporting structures. For this purpose, nano bioactive glass ceramic particle (nBGC) incorporated alginate composite scaffold was fabricated and characterized using SEM, EDAX, AFM, FTIR, XRD and other methods. The swelling ability, in vitro degradation, biomineralization and cytocompatibility of the scaffold were also evaluated. The results indicated reduced swelling and degradation and enhanced biomineralization and protein adsorption. In addition, the human periodontal ligament fibroblast (hPDLF) and osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells were viable, adhered and proliferated well on the alginate/bioglass composite scaffolds in comparison to the control alginate scaffolds. The presence of nBGC enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hPDLF cells cultured on the composite scaffolds. Thus results suggest that these biocompatible composite scaffolds can be useful for periodontal tissue regeneration. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

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2012

P. Supaphol, Suwantong, O., Sangsanoh, P., Sowmya Srinivasan, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Nair, S. V., “Electrospinning of biocompatible polymers and their potentials in biomedical applications”, Advances in Polymer Science, vol. 246, pp. 213-240, 2012.[Abstract]


Electrospinning has been recognized as a versatile method for the fabrication of continuous ultrafine fibers using electrical forces. Various natural and synthetic polymers have been successfully electrospun into non-woven mats or oriented fibrous bundles with high porosity and large surface areas. Despite the numerous reports on the production of electrospun fibers, these fiber mats did not gain much interest for use in the biomedical field until the past decade. This review summarizes the research and development related to the electrospinning of some common biocompatible polymers as well as an overview of their potential in many biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, carriers for drug delivery or controlled release, and enzyme immobilization. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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2012

Sowmya Srinivasan, Chennazhi, K. P., Levorson, E. J., Mikos, A. G., and Nair, S. V., “Multiscale fibrous scaffolds in regenerative medicine”, Advances in Polymer Science, vol. 246, pp. 1-20, 2012.[Abstract]


In recent years, multiscale fibrous scaffolds containing a combination of micro-and nanoscale fibers have attracted a lot of attention in the tissue engineering field. The multiscale concept is inspired by the hierarchical structure of many tissues, such as bone. Fibrous scaffolds have been traditionally microscale; however, it has been determined that many physicochemical and biological properties are influenced by fiber scale. For this reason, in an effort to optimize tissue regeneration the use of multiple scales has been investigated for obtaining innovative property combinations not otherwise attainable with a single fiber scale. Multiscale architectures have been found to be favorable not only in bone regeneration but also in the regeneration of soft tissues including cardiovascular tissue, neural tissue, cartilage, and skin. The unique properties of multiscale scaffolds have been pivotal in better mimicking the extracellular matrix and promoting vascularization, a key step towards the development of engineered tissue. In this review, we present current designs of multiscale scaffolds and discuss their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their potential applications in regenerative medicine. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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2011

Sowmya Srinivasan, Kumar, P. T. S., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., Tamura, H., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Biocompatible β-chitin Hydrogel/nanobioactive Glass Ceramic Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Periodontal Bone Regeneration”, Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs, vol. 25, pp. 1-11, 2011.[Abstract]


Periodontal disease involves destruction of alveolar bone around the teeth leading to defects or rather loss of the tooth if left untreated. In most cases, tissue regeneration does not happen spontaneously which calls for interventional therapy with bone substitutes. Bone grafts and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and are the most common approaches. However, the success rate is variable because of high susceptibility to infection and immunologic response which limits the clinical improvement. Realizing the vital role of synthetic biomaterials with limited immune response and good biological activity, we developed a nanocomposite scaffold using ®-chitin hydrogel with bioactive glass ceramic nanoparticles (nBGC) by lyophilization technique. The prepared nanoparticles and nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, DLS, TGA, AFM and SEM. Further, the porosity, swelling, in vitro degradation and biomineralization, cyto-toxicity, cell attachment and cell proliferation were also evaluated. The ®-chitin/nBGC composite scaffolds were found to have enhanced porosity, swelling, bioactivity and degradation in comparison to the control scaffolds. The composite scaffolds were non-toxic to human osteosarcoma (MG63) and human primary osteoblasts (POB) cells and supported cell attachment, spreading and proliferation. The ®-chitin/nBGC composite scaffolds were found to be satisfactory in all aspects, and these nanocomposite scaffolds could be promising candidates for the treatment of periodontal bone defects.

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2011

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Chennazhi, K. P., Sowmya Srinivasan, Shantikumar V Nair, Furuike, T., and Tamura, H., “Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering”, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 1876-1887, 2011.[Abstract]


Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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2011

P. T. Sudheesh Kumar, Sowmya Srinivasan, Lakshmanan, V. - K., Tamura, H., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “β-Chitin hydrogel/nano hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 85, pp. 584-591, 2011.[Abstract]


β-Chitin hydrogel/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared by freeze-drying approach from the mixture of β-chitin hydrogel and nHAp in different concentrations such as 0.5 and 1%, respectively. The prepared nHAp and nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized using various modalities. Porosity, swelling ability, in vitro degradation, protein adsorption and biomineralization of the prepared composite scaffolds were evaluated. The composite scaffolds were found to have 70-80% porosity with well defined interconnected porous structure. The scaffolds also showed a swelling ratio of 15-20, controlled biodegradation of about 30-40% with enhanced protein adsorption. In addition, the cell viability, attachment and proliferation using MG 63, Vero, NIH3T3 and nHDF cells confirmed the cytocompatibility nature of the nanocomposite scaffolds with well improved cell attachment and proliferation. All these results essentially signify that this material can be a potential candidate for bone and wound tissue engineering applications.

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2011

P. T. S. Kumar, Sowmya Srinivasan, Lakshmanan, V. - K., Tamura, H., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Synthesis, Characterization and Cytocompatibility Studies of α-chitin Hydrogel/nano Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 49, pp. 20-31, 2011.[Abstract]


α-chitin hydrogel/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) composite scaffold have been synthesized by freeze-drying approach with nHAp and α-chitin hydrogel. The prepared nHAp and nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized using DLS, SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TGA studies. The porosity, swelling, degradation, protein adsorption and biomineralization (calcification) of the prepared nanocomposite scaffolds were evaluated. Cell viability, attachment and proliferation were investigated using MG 63, Vero, NIH 3T3 and nHDF cells to confirm that the nanocomposite scaffolds were cytocompatible and cells were found to attach and spread on the scaffolds. All the results suggested that these scaffolds can be used for bone and wound tissue engineering.

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2011

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Ramachandran, R., Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, Divyarani, V. V., Sowmya Srinivasan, Chennazhi, K. P., Tamura, H., and Nair, S. V., “Fabrication of chitin-chitosan/nano ZrO2 composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 49, pp. 274-280, 2011.[Abstract]


The urge to repair and regenerate natural tissues can now be satisfactorily fulfilled by various tissue engineering approaches. Chitin and chitosan are the most widely accepted biodegradable and biocompatible materials subsequent to cellulose. The incorporation of nano ZrO2 onto the chitin-chitosan scaffold is thought to enhance osteogenesis. Hence a nanocomposite scaffold was fabricated by lyophilization technique using chitin-chitosan with nano ZrO2. The prepared nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRD and TGA. In addition, the swelling, degradation, biomineralization, cell viability and cell attachment of the composite scaffolds were also evaluated. The results demonstrated better swelling and controlled degradation in comparison to the control scaffold. Cell viability studies proved the non toxic nature of the nanocomposite scaffolds. Cells were found to be attached to the pore walls and spread uniformly throughout the scaffolds. All these results suggested that the developed nanocomposite scaffolds possess the prerequisites for tissue engineering scaffolds and could be used for various tissue engineering applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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Reviewer

  • International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
  • Carbohydrate Polymers
  • International Journal of Molecular Sciences
  • International Journal of Oral Science
  • Materials
  • Applied Sciences
  • Dentistry Journal
  • Pharmaceutics
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
  • Advanced Healthcare Materials
  • Journal of Biomaterials Science

Research Interest & Skills

  • 3D printed biomaterials for dental tissue engineering
  • Cell culture – stem cells, primary cells and cell lines
  • Isolation, culture and characterization of stem cells from human and animal tissues of dental and non-dental sources
  • Stem cell differentiation into specific lineages – osteogenic, fibrogenic, cementogenic lineages
  • Assays –ELISA, PCR, Protein quantification by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, biomineralization, cell-based assays, In vitro angiogenesis
  • Growth factor/recombinant proteins-related studies, isolation of growth factors from platelet rich plasma (PRP)
  • Synthesis and characterization of bioceramics like hydroxyapatite, bioactive glass, calcium sulfate, whitlockite
  • Synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials & nanomaterial based composite scaffolds
  • Development of biodegradable, polymeric and ceramic based composites, scaffolds and hydrogels for diverse tissue engineering and regenerative applications
  • Development of growth factor/recombinant proteins incorporated constructs/ scaffolds
  • Hands-on experience in Immunofluorescent Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), UV-VIS Spectrometer, Flow cytometry, Freeze-Dryer (lyophilizer), Fluorescent Microscope, Plate Reader
  • Microbial culture and evaluation of antibacterial activity
  • In vivo animal model development and surgery – Rabbit and rat models
  • Immunohistochemistry and Micro-CT for in vivo analysis

Professional Memberships

  1. Life Membership in Society for Biomaterials & Artificial Organs (SBAOI, India)
  2. Member of Indian Dental Association and Tamil Nadu Dental Council (Regd. No. 10623)

Awards and Honors

  1. Research Associate Fellowship awarded by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in March 2020.
  2. Best Student Researcher Award (2014-2015) received at National Conference on Application of the Derivatives of Chitin and Chitosan, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India.
  3. Senior Research Fellowship for 4 years awarded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India in 2012.
  4. Junior Research Fellowship for 2 years from Nanomission, Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India under the “Thematic Unit of Excellence” grant in 2010.
  5. Best poster award received at 1st Indian Chitin & Chitosan Society Symposium (ICCS-2010), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

Projects

  1. 3D-printed Mesh with Injectable Nanocomposite Gel for Bone Augmentation following Tooth Extraction – ICMR Research Associate Award (Initiated in April 2020, Status: Ongoing)
  2. Pilot study on the histological analysis of dental pulp tissue harvested from irreversible pulpitis cases- In collaboration with the Department of Oral Pathology and Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics (Initiated in 2019, Status: Ongoing)
  3. Antibacterial activity of different tea preparations against periodontal pathogens – In collaboration with Department of Periodontics and Amrita Center for Nanosciences & Molecular Medicine (2018-2020, Status: Ready for publication)
  4. Undergraduate research project on biomimetic materials and therapeutic strategies applied in the treatment of horizontal bone loss – A Review (Initiated in 2019, Status: Ongoing)

Conference and Seminar Presentations

  1. Invited webinar on “Venturing into Dental Research” organized by Chettinad Dental College & Research Institute, Chennai on May 28, 2020.
  2. Invited talk on “Venturing into Ph. D.” at Perio Sameeksha, Intensive Academic Review Programme, Amrita School of Dentistry, February 22 - 214 2018.
  3. Presented poster on “Layered Nanocomposite Scaffold for Regeneration of Periodontium Complex” at Indo-Australian Conference on Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Drug Delivery system & Regenerative Medicine BiTERM 2015 Anna University, Chennai, February 6 - 8, 2015.
  4. Oral presentation on “Chitin/PLGA/nBGC Hydrogel Scaffold for Periodontal Regeneration” at Indian Chitin and Chitosan Society Symposium, Gandhigram Rural University, August 22 - 23, 2014.
  5. Presented poster titled “Fabrication of Biocompatible and Biodegradable Nanocomposite Scaffolds” at Amrita Bioquest, International Conference on Biotechnology for Innovative Applications, Kollam, Kerala, August 10 - 14, 2013.
  6. Presented poster titled “Chitin/PLGA/nBGC Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Alveolar Bone and Periodontal Ligament Regeneration” at 5th Bangalore Nano, Bangalore, December 6 - 7, 2012.
  7. Presented poster titled “Chitin/PLGA/nBGC Hydrogel Composite Scaffolds: A Boon For Periodontal Regeneration” at NANOBIO-2012, February 21 - 23, 2012, Amrita Centre for Nanosciences, Amrita Institute for Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Cochin, Kerala, India.
  8. Oral presentation on “Chitin/PLGA/nBGC Composite Scaffolds for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration” at International Conference on Biomaterials, Implants and Tissue Engineering, BIDTE 2012, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, India, January 6 - 8, 2012.
  9. Oral presentation on “Antibacterial α and β-Chitin/Nano Bioglass/Nanosilver Composite Scaffolds for Periodontal Bone Regeneration” at 2nd Indian Chitin & Chitosan Society Symposium (II ICCS 2011), Hyderabad, India.
  10. Presented poster titled “Biocompatible Alginate/Nano Bioactive Glass Ceramic Composite Scaffolds for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration” at The Third International Conference on Frontiers in Nanoscience and Technology (Cochin Nano-2011), IMA House, Cochin, Kerala, India.
  11. Presented poster titled “Antibacterial β-Chitin/Nano Bioglass/Nanosilver Composite Scaffolds for Periodontal Bone Regeneration” at 1st Indian Chitin & Chitosan Society Symposium (I ICCS 2010), Coimbatore, India.