Dr. P. Ram Manohar is the Research Director at Amrita Centre for Advanced Research in Ayurveda. He received BAMS degree from Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore, in 1991 and MD (Ay) degree from Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bengaluru, in 2001. He has been contributing in the field of Ayurvedic research since the last 24 years. He has to his credit more than 50 publications including research papers published in peer reviewed indexed research journals as well as contributions in other journals and chapters for books.

Dr. Manohar was honored with the Ayurveda Marga Pravarthaka Award by the L. Mahadevan’s Ayurveda Foundation in 2014 and Vaidya Sundarlal Joshi Smriti Sodha Puraskara by the Mahagujarat Medical Society in 2015. He has made research visits to United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Argentina, Germany, France, Netherlands, Italy, Austria, Latvia, Russia, Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland, Thailand and Sri Lanka for the promotion of Ayurveda.


He was the Principal Investigator on the Indian side of the National Institutes of Health, USA sponsored research study to scientifically evaluate the efficacy of Ayurveda in rheumatoid arthritis which was conducted in collaboration with the University of Washington, Seattle, University of California, Los Angeles and AVP, Coimbatore under the leadership of Daniel Furst, MD, eminent Rheumatologist. The outcomes of this study was published in Annals of Rheumatic Diseases and Journal of Clinical Rheumatology and won the prestigious Excellence in Integrative Medicine Research Award from the European Society of Integrative Medicine. This study was recommended as a blue print for future studies on CAM by Dr. Edzard Ernst, a vehement critic of Complementary and Alternative Medicine.He has spearheaded the clinical documentation program called RUDRA and also established the first online indexing service for Ayurveda research papers called DHARA. He has served as Principal Investigator on projects granted by the Department of AYUSH, Indian National Science Academy and the Coconut Development Board.


Publication Type: Journal Article
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2016 Journal Article R. Manohar P. and Kessler, C. S., “Āyurveda's Contributions to Vegetarian Nutrition in Medicine”, Forschende Komplementärmedizin/Research in Complementary Medicine, vol. 23, pp. 89–94, 2016.[Abstract]

Āyurveda is one of the oldest codified traditional systems of medicine on a global scale. Grounded in Indian culture it has developed a sophisticated approach to healthy nutrition and nutritional therapy for the management of diseases within the framework of its whole systems paradigm. Medical interventions have been considered to be ineffective without the support of a balanced diet. Vegetarian nutrition plays a key role in customized preventive and therapeutic Āyurvedic strategies based on an individualized approach to healthcare, while broadly labeling Āyurveda as ‘vegetarian medicine' would be an exaggeration. Revolt against animal slaughter, compassion through spiritual practices, and the Āyurvedic understanding of the nutritional properties of the plant kingdom led to the dominance of vegetarianism in India. Āyurveda elaborates on 8 crucial aspects to be considered with respect to a balanced diet. This paper illuminates the complex historic embedding of the Āyurvedic nutritional approach and gives a detailed text-based explanation on why and how vegetarian nutrition can be applied in both prevention and cure of diseases from the perspective of traditional Indian medicine. More »»
2015 Journal Article D. Fave Antonella, Luca, N., P., R. Manohar, Antonio, M., and Marta, B., “The Ayurveda concept of Prakrti and the Western construct of personality: A comparative pilot study”, European Journal of Integrative Medicine (Impact Factor 0.777), vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 396-408, 2015.[Abstract]

In the Indian medical system of Ayurveda, health results from the balanced interplay between three functional principles or dos . a – V¯ ata, Pitta, and Kapha – that regulate psychophysical functions. The relative proportion of the three dos . a in an individual determines the person's psychophysical constitution, Prakti. The aim of this pilot study was to jointly assess individuals' Prakti and personality and emotional traits, investigating convergences and divergences between the two classification approaches. Method: Data were collected among 391 adult participants through the following self-assessment instruments: Questionnaire on Dos . a Prakti AyurVeda (QDAV), specifically developed in this study to evaluate Prakti; Big Five Inventory (BFI) to assess personality; Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), to evaluate emotional profile; Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), to measure perceived health. Participants' Prakti profile was identified first through QDAV and subsequently through its implemented version QDAV-R. Individuals characterized by predominant V¯ ata, Pitta, or Kapha Prakti (N = 173) were selected for subsequent analyses. Personality, emotional profile, and perceived health were compared across these groups through nonparametric procedures. Results: QDAV-R allowed for effectively classifying participants according to their Prakti. Personality, emotional and health features reported by V¯ ata, Pitta, and Kapha participants were consistent with the corresponding descriptions provided in the Ayurveda literature. Discussion: Findings suggest that Prakti classification can be fruitfully integrated into diagnostic and treatment protocols in healthcare and psychotherapy. These results can inform future studies, aimed at combining psychophysical measures derived from different knowledge traditions within an authentically integrated and person-centered approach to health and well-being.

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2015 Journal Article R. Manohar P., “English Translation with critical notes and indexing of Pathyāpathyaviniścaya - A 16th century text on Ayurvedic Dietetics”, Indian Journal for History of Science, Indian National Science Academy, pp. 535-541, 2015.[Abstract]

The Pathyāpathyaviniścaya of Vishwanatha Sen of the 16th Century AD was acclaimed all over the country as an authentic work on therapeutic dietetics. It was translated subsequently into Telugu, Bengali, Gujarati and Hindi but at present, the book is out of print not accessed by the Ayurvedic community. This report discusses the results of the attempt to translate this text book into English with critical notes and indexes, which will enable wider access and use amongst the professionals of Ayurveda and the larger global community that looks towards traditional systems of health for ideas on nurturing healthy diet and lifestyle. The book is divided into five sections covering 75 chapters listing with dos and don’ts for specific diseases with respect to diet, lifestyle and medicine. Each verse is given in the devanagari script with transliteration in the roman script along with prose order. Word by word meaning is also given with translation and critical notes. The entire information from the book has also been converted into a database to develop a software that will enable easy retrieval and sorting of the data.

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2015 Journal Article R. Manohar P., “Early descriptions and classification of cancer in the classical Ayurvedic texts”, Indian Journal for History of Science, Indian National Science Academy, pp. 187-195, 2015.[Abstract]

The first accounts of cancer in the history of medicine can be seen in seven papyri from Egypt dating back to 1600 BC. The term ‘cancer’ was coined by Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC) in his corpus. Descriptions of diseases resembling cancer have also been codified in the classical Ayurvedic
texts, which were composed few centuries before the Common Era. The discussion in the Suśruta Sahitā of the disease known as arbuda has striking resemblance to tumour forming cancers, with vivid clinical observations differentiating it from other growths. Suśruta also describes recurrence (adhyarbuda) and
metastasis (dvirarbuda) while the Caraka Sahitā differentiates benign tumour (granthi) from malignant tumour (arbuda) by the presence of a capsule (kośa). The classical texts of Ayurveda have also classified arbuda into many types. There is no direct evidence revealing the understanding of non-tumour forming
cancers in the tradition of Ayurveda. On the other hand, there are also diseases other than arbuda whose descriptions resemble cancer. This suggests that there was no umbrella term for cancer that included all types of malignancies under one heading. There is indication that the ancient physicians may have
understood the correlation between chronic inflammation and cancer as arbuda (malignant tumour) is considered to be an outcome of oedema and inflammation (śotha). Many herbs used in Ayurveda have been screened for activity against cancer and in-vitro and in-vivo studies have given promising leads. Ayurvedic physicians have also reported good outcomes when Ayurvedic treatments are administered as an adjuvant to chemotherapy and radiation for the management of cancer. There are also anecdotal reports of successful management of cancer with Ayurvedic treatment.

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2015 Journal Article A. Mahapatra, Aramya, A. R., Latha, K., and P., R. Manohar, “Comparative evaluation of specific phytochemical indicatives in cirivilvädi Kaṣāya prepared freshly and at commercial scale”, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 650-654, 2015.[Abstract]

Kaṣāya or decoction is an Ayurvedic dosage form, prescribed based on the stage of the disease according to the principles of Ayurveda. This dosage form is traditionally prepared fresh and consumed on the same day but for the sake of convenience; the process of preparation has been modified so that it can be stored with longer shelf life, easy availability and produced in large quantities. There is a need to understand the implications of this modification in terms of chemical changes. This work attempted to check the phytochemical profile of both freshly prepared decoction and commercially available decoction with reference to some analytical parameters like pH, total soluble solids, phenols, alkaloids, potassium and to assess the changes in the thin layer chromatography profiling of the decoction. The results showed that phenols and potassium are found to be two fold higher in freshly prepared decoction, compared to commercially available decoction diluted to dosage in practice (1:4 ratio). However, the total alkaloid content was found to be approximately ten fold higher in commercially available decoction. It was observed that the thin layer chromatography profile of decoctions was extracted into petroleum ether and chloroform was similar and consistent with different batches though the bands in commercially available decoction were slightly more intense compared to freshly prepared decoction. The total soluble solids in commercially available decoction were four times higher than freshly prepared decoction. The study reveals that there are differences in the phytochemical profiles of the freshly prepared decoction and commercially available decoction of the same formulation. However, the significance of these differences can be determined only by further clinical studies. On the other hand, the study lends support to the practice of diluting the commercially available decoction to make it equivalent to freshly prepared decoction.

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2014 Journal Article D. B. Narayana, Aramya, A. R., Sujithra, R. M., Mahapatra, A., and P., R. Manohar, “Posological Considerations of Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi) as per Ayurvedic Science and Pharmaceutical Sciences”, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Impact Factor 0.479), vol. 76, pp. 240–245, 2014.[Abstract]

A study in 2010 reported that administration of 2 g of O. sanctum leaves for 30 days to laboratory male albino rabbits showed adverse effect on sperm count and male hormones. The dose and duration at which this testing was reported was commented upon as being high. It is learnt that basis this publication a few European regulators have imposed restrictions on usage of O. sanctum. Recognizing the need for evaluation, a review has been made of the posological considerations related to decision on dose of a drug in pharmaceuticals (drug development stages) and in Ayurvedic science as part of history of use and current usage. Specifically, we report the dose range as per documented tradition, marketed products containing O. sanctum as an ingredient and current clinical practice. Greater consultation is suggested before deciding the studies on Ayurvedic herbs. Regulatory action of banning use of O. sanctum needs a review and may need to be replaced with an advisory.

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2014 Journal Article R. Ramya, Anantanarayanan, R., and P., R. Manohar, “The arsenic and mercury containing Tanjore Pills used in treating snake bites in the 18th century Madras Presidency”, Current Science (Impact Factor 0.935), vol. 106, pp. 1759- 1763, 2014.
2014 Journal Article R. Manohar P., Mahapatra, A., Joseph, M., Mohan, P., and Sujithra, R. M., “Comparative Effectiveness Research on Different Treatment Options for Rheumatoid Arthritis in Ayurveda”, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Impact Factor 1.69), vol. 20, pp. A75–A76, 2014.
2014 Journal Article R. Manohar P., Parvathy, M., Mathew, J., Aramya, A. R., Sujith, E., Sujithra, R. M., and Anita, M., “Method of drug discovery in the classical tradition of ayurveda as a preliminary tool for refinement of folklore knowledge of medicinal plants”, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (Impact Factor 1.69), vol. 20, p. A131, 2014.
2013 Journal Article Y. Tsutomu and P., R. Manohar, “Memoirs of Vaidyas. The Lives and Practices of Traditional Medical Doctors in Kerala, India (7)”, Indian Journal for History of Science, Indian National Science Academy, vol. 6, 2013.[Abstract]

This article presents an English translation of an interview with a practitioner of traditional Indian medicine (Āyurveda), A. S. M*** N*** (1930 ~ ), in Kerala, India. The interviewee’s specialized field is traditional poison-healing (Viṣavaidya). The contents of the interview are: 1. History of the Family (1.1 Family Members, 1.2 Teachers, 1.3 Joint Family, 1.4 Elephant, 1.5 Father, 1.6 Tradition of the Veda), 2. Traditional Poison-healing (Viṣavaidya) (2.1 Textual Tradition, 2.2 Kōkkara Nampūtiriʼs Reformation, 2.3 Speciality of Treatments and Medicines in Kerala, 2.4 Treatment Methods, 2.5 Modern Medicine and Āyurveda, 2.6 Signs of Death, 2.7 Prevision, 2.8 Treatment fee, 2.9 Hydrophobia, 2.10 Mantra, 2.11 Features of Messengers (dūtalakṣaṇa), 2.12 Amtakalā and Viṣakalā), 3. Treatments for Elephants, and Bibliography.

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2012 Journal Article R. Manohar P., Sujithra, R. M., Anita, M., and Sujith, E., “A narrative review of research on Ayurveda”, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Impact Factor 2.08), vol. 12(Suppl 1), p. P427, 2012.
2012 Journal Article R. Manohar P., Sujithra, R. M., Anita, M., and Sujith, E., “Online indexing service for research articles published on Ayurveda”, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Impact Factor 2.08), vol. 12(Suppl 1), p. P375, 2012.
2012 Journal Article R. Manohar P., Manohar, S. R., Mahapatra, A., and Eranezhath, S. S., “DHARA: Digital Helpline for Ayurveda Research Articles”, Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, Medknow, 2012.
2012 Journal Article Y. Tsutomu and P., R. Manohar, “Memoirs of Vaidyas. The Lives and Practices of Traditional Medical Doctors in Kerala, India (6)”, Electronic Journal of Indian Medicine, vol. 5, 2012.[Abstract]

This article presents an English translation of an interview with a doctor of traditional Indian medicine (Āyurveda), Aṣṭavaidya, P*** Ś*** Mooss (1960 ~ ), in Kerala, India. The contents of the interview are 1. History of the Family and Aṣṭavaidyas, 2. Traditional Education of Āyurveda, 3. A Patient in the Final Stage, 4. The Carakasaṃhitā and the Aṣṭāṅgahdayasaṃhitā, 5. The Aṣṭāṅgahdayasaṃhitā and the Aṣṭāṅgasaṃgraha, 6. Modern Āyurveda, 7. Vāgbhaṭa in Kerala, 8. Treatments of Āyurveda, 9. Traditional elephant-medicine (Hastyāyurveda).

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2012 Journal Article R. Manohar P., “Accounts of pathogenic organisms in the early texts of Ayurveda”, Indian Journal for History of Science, Indian National Science Academy, pp. 545-559, 2012.[Abstract]

The codified texts of Ayurveda were composed in the few centuries preceding and succeeding the common era. This period marked the emergence of a rational system of medicine in India from the moorings of religious medicine practiced in the Vedic period. Ayurveda made several advancements in theory and practice of medicine that have not yet been recognised as milestones in the history of medical ideas. This paper is an attempt to review the knowledge of pathogenic organisms and their role in diseases based on textual evidences in the early writings on Ayurveda. A careful study of the early writings on Ayurveda reveals that these ancient physicians were aware of not only pathogenic organisms but also non-pathogenic organisms that naturally inhabited the human body. Pathogenic organisms mentioned in Ayurveda include parasite, worms and perhaps microbes also. These texts provide insights on early notions and ideas about the nature of pathogenic organisms, some of which are microscopic and their role in diseases. There are also interesting observations on communicable diseases, epidemics and infection. Many plants and formulations mentioned in the classical Ayurvedic texts have been found to be effective against pathogenic organisms including

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2011 Journal Article D. E. Furst, Venkatraman, M. M., McGann, M., P., R. Manohar, Booth-LaForce, C., Sarin, R., Sekar, P. G., Raveendran, K. G., Mahapatra, A., and Gopinath, J., “Double-blind, randomized, controlled, pilot study comparing classic ayurvedic medicine, methotrexate, and their combination in rheumatoid arthritis”, Journal of Clinical Rheumatology (Impact Factor 1.245), vol. 17, pp. 185–192, 2011.[Abstract]

Objective: To compare classic Ayurveda, methotrexate (MTX), and their combination in a double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, pilot trial in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 36 weeks. Methods: Forty-three seropositive RA patients by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria with disease duration of less than 7 years were assigned to the following treatment groups: MTX plus Ayurvedic placebo (n = 14), Ayurveda plus MTXplacebo (n = 12), or Ayurveda plus MTX (n = 17). Outcomes included the Disease Activity Score (DAS28- CRP), ACR20/50/70, and Health Assessment Questionnaire Y Disability Index. All measures were obtained every 12 weeks for 36 weeks. Analyses included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, χ 2, or Student t test. The unique features of this study included the development of placebos for each Ayurvedic pharmacological dosage form and individualization of Ayurvedic therapy. Results: All groups were comparable at baseline in demographics and disease characteristics. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups on the efficacy measures. ACR20 results were MTX 86%, Ayurveda 100%, and combination 82%, and DAS28-CRP response were MTX j2.4, Ayurveda j1.7, and combination j2.4. Differences in adverse events among groups were also not statistically significant, although the MTX groups experienced more adverse event (MTX 174, Ayurveda 112, combination 176). No deaths occurred. Conclusions: In this first-ever, double-blind, randomized, placebocontrolled pilot study comparing Ayurveda, MTX, and their combination, all 3 treatments were approximately equivalent in efficacy, within the limits of a pilot study. Adverse events were numerically fewer in the Ayurveda-only group. This study demonstrates that double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies are possible when testing individualized classic Ayurvedic versus allopathic treatment in ways acceptable to western standards and to Ayurvedic physicians. It also justifies the need for larger studies. More »»
2011 Journal Article D. E. Furst, Venkatraman, M. M., Swamy, B. G. Krishna, McGann, M., Booth-LaForce, C., P., R. Manohar, Sarin, R., Mahapatra, A., and Kumar, P. R. Krishna, “Well controlled, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of classical Ayurvedic treatment are possible in rheumatoid arthritis”, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (Impact Factor 10.337), vol. 70, pp. 392–393, 2011.
2011 Journal Article Y. Tsutomu and P., R. Manohar, “Memoirs of Vaidyas. The Lives and Practices of Traditional Medical Doctors in Kerala, India (5)”, Electronic Journal of Indian Medicine, Barkhuis, Netherlands, 2011.
2010 Journal Article R. Manohar P., “Evidence and clinical research for Ayurveda from India”, European Journal of Integrative Medicine (Impact Factor 0.777), vol. 2, pp. 170-171, 2010.
2010 Journal Article Y. Tsutomu and P., R. Manohar, “Memoirs of Vaidyas. The Lives and Practices of Traditional Medical Doctors in Kerala, India (4)”, Electronic Journal of Indian Medicine, 2010.[Abstract]

This article presents an English translation of interview with a doctor of traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda), Astavaidya, V. C. Na*** Namputiri (1929~) in Kerala, India. The contents of the interview are 1. Background and education, 2. History of the family and Astavaidyas, 3. The legacy of Vahata (Vagbhata), 4. Medical texts and manuscripts, 5. Special treatments, Rasayana, 6. Sanskrit and Malayalam literature. More »»
2009 Journal Article Y. Tsutomu and P., R. Manohar, “Memoirs of Vaidyas. The Lives and Practices of Traditional Medical Doctors in Kerala, India (3)”, Electronic Journal of Indian Medicine, 2009.
2009 Journal Article R. Manohar P., Reshmi, P., and S., R., “Mustard and its uses in Ayurveda”, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, NISCAIR, 2009.
2008 Journal Article Y. Tsutomu and P., R. Manohar, “Memoirs of Vaidyas. The Lives and Practices of Traditional Medical Doctors in Kerala, India (2)”, Electronic Journal of Indian Medicine, 2008.
2008 Journal Article Y. Tsutomu and P., R. Manohar, “Memoirs of Vaidyas. The Lives and Practices of Traditional Medical Doctors in Kerala, India (1)”, Electronic Journal of Indian Medicine, 2008.[Abstract]

This article presents an English translation of interview with a doctor of traditional poison- therapy (visavaidya), V*** S*** Namputiri (1917~ ) in Kerala, India. The contents of the interview are 1. Background and present circumstances, 2. Textual traditions, 3. Traditional medicines, 4. Treatments, 5. Mantra and reading omens and 6. The canon of visavaidya. More »»
2006 Journal Article R. Manohar P., “The potential of coconut in manufacturing Ayurvedic medicines”, Indian Coconut Journal, Coconut Development Board, 2006.
2005 Journal Article R. Manohar P., “Coconut in Ayurveda”, Indian Coconut Journal, Coconut Development Board, 2005.
2005 Journal Article R. Manohar P., R., K. S. B., E., S., B., V., M., S., and Sehgal, A., “Management of Fistula in Ano in Ancient Greek and Ayurvedic medicine - a historical Analysis”, Indian Journal for History of Science, Indian National Science Academy, 2005.[Abstract]

There is a general belief that the Ayurvedic approach to management of fistula in ano, especially the method of caustic ligature, is similar to that of Greek medicine and has no relevance in the history of world medicine or the advancements made in modern surgery. This article attempts to bring to limelight the uniqueness of the method of caustic ligature expounded in the classical Ayurvedic texts and also emphasizes the fact that the surgical interventions described by Susruta are comparable with modern surgical methods now in use. In fact, there is evidence that the ancient method of caustic ligature is superior to modern seton thread as well as other surgical procedures. More »»
1997 Journal Article R. Manohar P., “Whither Ayurveda”, Arya Vaidyan, Arya Vaidya Sala, 1997.
Publication Type: Conference Proceedings
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2013 Conference Proceedings R. Manohar P., “Defining Ayurveda as a whole medical system: Examples of clinical encounters in real life situations”, Forschende Komplementarmedizin (Impact Factor 1.28), vol. 20(S3). p. 4, 2013.[Abstract]

Clinical research on Ayurveda has more than often eval- uated single herbs, formulations or component therapies to comply with reductionistic research designs. On the other hand, complex forms of in- dividualised and multimodal Ayurvedic treatments combining pharmaco- logical and non-pharmacological interventions are administered in real life situations, especially in India, where Ayurveda has a long history and tradition of clinical practice. There is a need to look at the gap between clinical research and clinical practice in the field of Ayurveda to design and develop research methodologies that are rigorous but flexible enough to accommodate the complexity of Ayurveda.
Methods: Observational studies and clinical trials conducted at AVC, a 100 bed Ayurvedic hospital in India on more than 1000 patients (AMRA Trial on Rheumatoid Arthritis, RUDRA Observational Studies on Osteo- arthritis, Diabetes, Bronchial Asthma, Cervical Spondylosis and Lumbar Spondylosis), have generated data on outcomes of complex Ayurvedic clinical interventions. These diseases have also been studied with con- ventional research designs and data is accessible from published research providing the opportunity to characterise the complexity of Ayurvedic treatments administered in clinical practice vis a vis those administered in clinical research by comparing research designs, outcome measures and treatment outcomes. Results: The complexity of Ayurvedic clinical interventions in actual clinical practice could be delineated highlighting the approaches to in- dividualisation of treatments as well as the iterative and recursive nature of its therapies. Ayurvedic nosology differs from modern classification of diseases implicating the need for specific strategies in setting inclusion/ exclusion criteria and defining treatment outcome measures. A compar- ative study of Ayurvedic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis revealed variations in treatment outcomes based on differences in research design, diagnostic protocols and outcome measures. The implications were found to be same for other diseases.
Conclusion: Conventional research demands modification of Ayurvedic treatment protocols to fit into the study designs. As a result, Ayurveda is evaluated in research settings using treatment protocols that differs from actual practices, pointing out the relevance of modifying research designs to accommodate the whole medical system (WMS) features of Ayurveda with examples that identify the gaps between research and practice in Ayurveda.

Defining Ayurveda as a whole medical system: Examples of clinical encounters in real life situations (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257581457_Defining_Ayurveda_as_... [accessed Mar 24, 2016].

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Publication Type: Book
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2012 Book R. Manohar P., Clinical evidence in the tradition of ayurveda, vol. 9783642245657. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2012, pp. 67-78.[Abstract]

A careful study of the classical literature of Ayurveda provides compelling indications to believe that the practice of building clinical evidence was nurtured in the tradition of Ayurveda. Ayurveda exhibits the characteristics of a knowledge system and requires that observations are validated to be accepted as knowledge. The celebrated textbook on general medicine known as the Charaka Samhita remarks that the outcome of a clinical intervention is to be dismissed as accidental or due to chance if it cannot be substantiated with proper evidence and reasoning. Classical texts of Ayurveda also discuss about self-limiting diseases and the need to distinguish between the true effect and chance effect of a medical intervention. Classical treatments of Ayurveda are multimodal in nature and cannot be studied using conventional methods of clinical research. Appropriate research designs for both observational studies as well as randomized clinical trials need to be developed for meaningful evaluation of clinical interventions in Ayurveda. This chapter will review the gaps in the current approaches to clinical research in Ayurveda and highlight the attempts that have been made to develop methodologies that are appropriate not only for Ayurveda but also such other systems of traditional, complementary, or alternative medicine. An elaborate discussion of the classical approach in building clinical evidence in the tradition of Ayurveda will also be attempted in the process. More »»
2009 Book R. Manohar P., The blending of science and spirituality in the ayurvedic tradition of healing. Anthem Press, 2009, pp. 169-180.[Abstract]

This paper attempts to highlight the Ayurvedic tradition as a model that can serve as a platform to synthesize science and spirituality in the context of healing. Before venturing to examine this proposition, we need to understand the epistemological foundations of Ayurveda upon which a theoretical structure has been erected that encompasses the methods of both science and spirituality. As we proceed with this daunting task, we will realize the need to define and differentiate science and spirituality in the first place. When we begin to familiarize ourselves with ancient methods of knowledge-building, the rigid compartments that dichotomize science and spirituality begin to dissolve. It becomes clear that the ancient knowledge systems did not profess such distinctions in the sense that we do today. What we encounter is a matrix in which these two approaches have blended naturally, so much so that it becomes difficult to distinguish between the two. It is when we impose our modern ideas of the scientific process and spiritual method that we are able to discover a theoretical framework that has fused these two seemingly conflicting approaches so spontaneously. We have to discriminate between religion and spirituality to ward off misconceptions that may arise when we look at science and the scientific method. Religion is to spirituality what technology is to science. In other words, we can say that religion is the technology of spirituality. More »»


Under his editorial leadership, Ancient Science of Life became the largest PubMed indexed research journal in the field of Ayurveda. He serves in the Editorial Board of the Indian Journal for History of Science published by the Indian National Science Academy. He is also the Chief Editor of Abhinava Dhanvantari, the new edition of the first journal for Ayurveda from Kerala published in the early part of the 20th Century. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Global Advances in Health and Medicine.


He has participated in 25 major international conferences and more than 100 national conferences. He serves in the Communications Committee of the 6th International Conference on Integrative Medicine and Health (ICIMH) scheduled to be held at Las Vegas in May 2016. He also serves as Head of the Scientific Committee of International Research Seminar on Ayurveda (IRSA), the third edition of which is being held at Milan, Italy in September 2016.


He is presently serving as Research Director at Amrita Centre for Advanced Research in Ayurveda (ĀCĀRA) attached to Amrita School of Ayurveda managed by Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (University). He also participates in academic activities at Southern California University of Health Sciences, USA European Academy of Ayurveda, Germany, and Ayurvedic Point, Italy, National University of Rosario, Argentina. He is an approved guide for the PhD program in Ayurveda at Amrita University. He is Research Advisor of AVP Research Foundation, Coimbatore.


He is Research Advisor of National Commission for History of Science, Indian National Science Academy (INSA), Government of India. He also serves as a member of Scientific Advisory Group of Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Government of India. He served as member of Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), Government of India He has also served as Member, Program Advisory Committee,National Health Systems Resource Centre, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India and Member, Sub-Committee for Public Relations, Scientific Communication and IEC for International Cooperation, Dept. of AYUSH, Government of India. He serves as the Co-Head of the International Network for Development of Research in Ayurveda (INDRA) operating with its headquarters in Europe. He is also Scientific Advisor for the National Ayurvedic Medical Association (NAMA), Russia.


He has been featured in the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in USA in a documentary titled “INDIA - A SECOND OPINION” highlighting the scope of Ayurveda in chronic diseases. He was one of the anchors in the documentary on “THE JOURNEY OF AYURVEDA” produced by the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. He also made a brief appearance on German TV channel RBB for the documentary “HOW HEALTHY IS VEGETARIAN DIET”. He was interviewed by BBC Radio 4, London on the theme “HERBS, PILLS AND POTIONS”, broadcast and webcast by BBC Radio. He was also featured on Doordarshan Documentary Serial “AYURVEDA- MEDICINE FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM” co-produced by the Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Cbe) Pvt Limited.

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