Qualification: 
Ph.D, M.Tech
s_anju@cb.amrita.edu

Dr. Anju S. Pillai currently serves as Assistant Professor (SG) at the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. She has more than 20 years of teaching experience. Dr. Anju is with Amrita since 2001. She obtained her Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore in 1998 and M.Tech. in Electronic Design and Technology from National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala in 2004. Dr. Anju received her Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering in the year 2016 from Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore under Erasmus Mundus Fellowship (EURECA) as research exchange student at Mälardalen University, Sweden. Dr. Anju has published more than 40 technical articles in scholarly international journals and conferences. Her research interests include: development of power-aware embedded systems, design and development of custom RTOS, real-time scheduling and optimization for power and performance of embedded applications, addressing challenges of multi-core and multiprocessor systems and development of fault tolerant systems.

Recognition

  • Dr. Anju is a recipient of the Chancellor’s Collaborative Research Fellowship funded by Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India to carry out Collaborative research at Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
  • Received Best Paper Award for the research paper: “Predictive Maintenance Architecture”, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (IEEE ICCIC), India, Dec. 2018. 
  • Dr. Anju is a recipient of European Research and Educational Collaboration with Asia (EURECA) Research Fellowship, funded by the European Commission under the Erasmus Mundus External cooperation window at Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden from April 2009 – March 2010. During this period, she visited KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden and at Uppsala University, Sweden as part of her Doctoral studies. 
  • Received Best Paper Award for the research paper: “A Power-aware Multiprocessor Based Laboratory Automation and Resource Management System”, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (IEEE ICCIC), India, Dec. 2014. 

Professional Positions

  • 2018 – Till Date, Visiting Professor
    Post doctoral fellow at WINCORE lab, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada, January - May 2018.
  • 2009 - 2010,  Visiting Researcher
    (March 2009 – April 2010) Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    One year of Doctoral studies completed at Mälardalen University, Sweden.

Professional Activities

Dr. Anju has more than 30 International Journal/Conference publications to her credit and is guiding several students in the area of Embedded Systems for their under graduate, masters and Ph.D. She is member of chairs of International Conference on Mechanical, Electronic and Information Technology (MEIT2016), Phuket, Thailand. She is a member in National Editorial and Review Board member of Journal of Management Research and Analysis. She has also served as the Organizing Committee Member and Session Chair of International Conference on Smart Grid Technologies, ICGST’15, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, India, 2015. Dr. Anju was one of the Resource persons for Faculty Development Program on ‘PIC Microcontrollers’ 2015 organized by the department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore. She has also served as Steering Committee Member and Session Chair of International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES’14, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, India. She has reviewed several papers for International Journals/Conferences: Journal of Computer Science, Science Publications, ICES 2014 etc. Dr. Anju has delivered several expert lectures in Real-time Embedded Systems domain at various engineering colleges, organized various faculty development programs and student workshops.     

Doctoral Guidance

Name

Title of the Thesis

Ms. Lakshmi Suresh

Control algorithm development for Electric Vehicle charging (In progress)

Mr. Prajeesh C B

Data Mining approach for On-board EV Charging Scheduler ( In progress)

Ms. Harsha Gopinath

Deep Reinforcement Learning framework for vehicle platoons ( In progress)

Mr. Murugaraj G

Online correction of the seam in the metallic 3D printer (Co-supervisor) ( In progress)

Mr. R. Ranjith

Analysis of Human Gait Pattern for Reliable and Secure Body Fall Detection ( In progress)

Ms. Shyama M

Multi Objective Fault Tolerant Routing To Enhance Performance in Wireless Sensor Networks (In progress)

Publications

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Title

2019

K. Lashmi and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Ambient Intelligence and IoT Based Decision Support System for Intruder Detection”, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). 2019.[Abstract]


Ambient intelligence is an evolving discipline which brings intelligence to our daily life through various domains comprising elderly assistance, preventive maintenance, video surveillance, etc. It refers to the concept of electronic surroundings that are subtle and reactive to the existence of people or things. In the up-to-date society, criminality reaches out to influence most aspects of people's regular lives. Hence, individuals themselves started assuring against crime. This paper describes an ambient intelligence-based decision support system which provides home-based security. The proposed system mainly focuses on two techniques: face recognition to identify the house holders and anomaly detection to recognize the activities of the individual. Thus it can be used to send alerts to necessary authorities and family members if needed and enables real time monitoring of the captured anomaly through Internet of Things (IoT). The proposed framework produces an efficient face recognition and anomaly detection system with high performance rate.

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2019

J. Savithry, Ortega, A. G., Dr. Anju Pillai S., Balbastre, P., and Crespo, A., “Design of Criticality-Aware Scheduling for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems”, 2019 24th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). 2019.[Abstract]


Demand for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is growing larger with the key focus of increased road safety, driver comfort and the futuristic autonomous vehicles. ADAS is typically a mixed-criticality system (MCS) with interdependent tasks which change their criticality level with the dynamic changes in the environment. In an MCS, the timing of safety-critical tasks must be strictly guaranteed to prevent accidents. From the conventional scheduling techniques in ADAS, more challenge is involved in meeting the timing performance of task scheduling and resource sharing while ADAS as MCS. This is a work-in-progress paper. Its objective is the design of ADAS with multicore partitioned architecture on the Xtratum hypervisor with the improved load and resource sharing among the subsystems. This is to address the dynamic changes in criticality and later to reduce the make-span for high critical tasks so as to prevent accidents. Two safety-critical ADAS subsystems Forward Collision Avoidance System (FCAS) and Blind Spot Avoidance System (BSAS) help to illustrate the architecture in this paper.

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2018

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and J, S., “Towards Mixed Criticality Real time Scheduling”, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (IEEE ICCIC). 2018.[Abstract]


Mixed-criticality system (MCS) is one of the upcoming and most challenging research areas in embedded systems. Real-time (RT) scheduling for MCS is a key aspect done during design time to analyze the schedulability and strictly guarantee the timing of various critical tasks. This paper tries to study if the existing non-MCS preemptive scheduling approach for periodic and aperiodic tasks can be extended to uniprocessor MCS. A comparison between the maximum response time for the tasks in a non-MCS and MCS is performed. It is inferred that the conventional preemptive scheduler is sufficient but does not give minimal response time for a high critical task. This provides the groundwork to further explore and contribute to the research area.

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2018

Dr. Anju Pillai S., Motaghare, O., and Dr. K. I. Ramachandran, “Predictive Maintenance Architecture”, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (IEEE ICCIC). 2018.[Abstract]


In industrial plants or any critical utility plants, the ultimate goal is to maximize the production quantity and quality but at the same time keeping the production cost as low as possible. To achieve this, it is mandatory to keep plants in fully efficient condition so that the throughput of the system is maximum. In order to keep the system fully efficient it needs to be maintained properly. There are different maintenance strategies being used to maintain the efficiency of the plant. For any specific type of industry, maintenance affects the cost of goods produced. To avoid breakdown, the maintenance strategies should be planned in such a way that the maintenance tasks are executed at right time. Unnecessary maintenance tasks increase the maintenance costs and also the time required to execute them. Through this paper, the prospect of optimizing the plant operation i.e. to reduce the down time of the system using predictive maintenance (PdM) approach which will lead to reduced production cost has been explored.

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2018

S. Paranjape and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Optimal Workload Allocation for Performance Evaluation on Multi-core Automotive ECUs”, 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Instrumentation and Control Technologies, ICICICT 2017, vol. 2018-January. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 685-690, 2018.[Abstract]


With the necessity of increased safety concern and good comfort, multiprocessor and multi-core systems are in more demand. In multi-core system there are mainly two challenges which need more attention compared to single processor system viz., task assignment and task scheduling. This paper considers task dependency, balanced utilization of cores and task splitting strategies and presents how a set of tasks can be optimally assigned to two-core processor. The proposed approach is beneficial in terms of reduced inter core-processor communication, avoiding overloading of cores and finding optimal number of cores for workload assignment. Simulation studies are carried out to compare the proposed algorithm with conventional allocation algorithm in the field for performance evaluation. Various test cases are considered for performance comparison and the proposed algorithm is evaluated by simulations, showing superior performance compared the existing algorithm in most of the cases. © 2017 IEEE.

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2018

B. A. Krishnan and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Digital Sensor Simulation Frame Work for Hardware-in-the-loop Testing”, 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing, Instrumentation and Control Technologies, ICICICT 2017, vol. 2018-January. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 813-817, 2018.[Abstract]


Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is a dynamic testing technique that simulates the Input/output (I/O) behavior of a physical system that interfaces to a control system. HIL testing allows the designer to simulate the real-time behavior and characteristics of the physical system, so as to test the Device Under Test (DUT) which operates on the physical system, without the need for the actual hardware or operational environment. In this paper, the physical system considered is digital sensors and the control system is a QT based application which utilizes the output from these sensors. Thus, models of the sensors of interest will be created with the help of data sheets of the same and will be implemented in the modeling hardware. The proposed HIL simulator could be used for simulating sensors with I2C outputs. Accelerometer sensors-BMA280 and BMC150 is implemented on the hardware of choice and code libraries for the same are created. This provides a cost effective way of testing large systems including various sensors and actuators. © 2017 IEEE.

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2017

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Narendrakumar, T., “Smart Connected Campus”, IEEE International Conference On Intelligent Computing, Instrumentation and Control Technologies (ICICICT). 2017.[Abstract]


Smart Cities uses Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance the infrastructure components, which provides automation and thereby various services of a city become more intelligent, interconnected and efficient. The proposed work Smart Connected Campus targets on deploying and exploiting smart city technologies and services in an university campus. All the features of a smart campus are networked and communicated through Internet of Things (IoT) solution, by facilitating various objects to be sensed and controlled from any remote location. The proposed smart campus brings in different features viz., university details, on-line resources, emergency contacts, notifications, route map, smart canteen management system, real-time water monitoring system and smart temperature monitoring system all in one platform: Campus Info - an Android application which guarantee fast and reliable delivery of information at run-time.

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2017

R. S. Janani, Dr. Anju Pillai S., and Manjunath, P. K., “Power of CLZ instruction in Numerical Computations”, 2017 International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy Information and Communication (ICCPEIC), Tamilnadu, India. 2017.[Abstract]


Microprocessors provide count leading zeroes (CLZ) circuit to count the number of leading zeroes of a binary number and there are available instructions to support the same. Many research works target on improving the efficiency of CLZ circuitry, yet CLZ is an underutilized function. This paper focuses on exploring the optimization potential of CLZ. In this work, few potential computations and algorithms viz., square root computation and Huffman decoding are implemented with the support of CLZ and the results obtained are verified and compared with the actual codes (without the use of CLZ) in terms of accuracy, efficiency and computation time of the code. Extensive simulations are carried out in IAR Embedded Workbench and Microsoft Visual Studio. The obtained results for square root computation proves that the use of CLZ as an optimization tool outperforms the conventional method by 46.6115 %. Also, an efficient and less complex decoding algorithm using CLZ for variable length prefix code viz., Huffman code is proposed in this paper.

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2017

Dr. Anju Pillai S., Manjunath, P. K., and Janani, R. S., “OpenCPU platform for IoT applications—A study”, 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy (TAP Energy), Kerala, India. 2017.[Abstract]


In the past couple of years Internet of Things (IoT) has become a buzzword, even though IoT is not a completely new concept, but a latest iteration of an old concept called M2M (Machine-to-Machine). IoT is in its early stage and is evolving rapidly. A concept which can aid to this evolution is OpenCPU. This paper aims at defining and distinguishing the concept of openCPU, highlighting the features commonly supported by openCPU modules. This work includes description about various application domains where openCPU can be used and also a description about an environment monitoring system implemented with the help of openCPU platform to prove the versatility of openCPU.

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2017

F. Jose and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Code Configuration Tool for Real Time Systems”, 6th International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy, Information and Communication, ICCPEIC 2017, vol. 2018-January. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 342-346, 2017.[Abstract]


Most of the embedded application developments are time consuming due to the lack of softwares for configuring the peripherals. Currently existing Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) and simulators in the real-time field helps to simulate synthetic tasks, run feasible tests and compile a program, but code generating features for the peripherals are not available in these systems. This paper presents a novel Code Configuration Tool (CCT) for embedded systems, which can be used for developing an embedded application quickly and easily. The features of CCT includes: Graphical User Interface (GUI), tools for configuring peripherals, code generation and project building. CCT is developed using Qt-C++ framework. CCT is interfaced with Philips ARM7 LPC 2148 micro controller and configures the peripherals of LPC controller and generates C program for the same, which a user can use directly to dump on the controller for application implementation. Thus, the key contribution of this work is development of a software platform which can be used to generate executable codes for various peripherals of LPC 2148 controller to implement specific real-time applications without the overhead of configuring and writing codes of the peripherals resulting in rapid hardware implementation.

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2016

K. Arathi and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Low-Power Home Embedded Surveillance System Using Image Processing Techniques”, International Conference on Power circuit and Information Technologies (ICPCIT). Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 24-34, 2016.[Abstract]


The need for surveillance systems are increasing due to safety and security requirements. And there exists an ample amount of challenging work yet to be explored in this domain. The current work proposes design, development and implementation of a low-power home embedded surveillance system. Such systems being operated throughout the day, consumes considerable amount of power. Power consumption being a crucial design parameter affects the utility of the system. In the proposed system to consume power, use of low-power sensor groups and controlling the activation of surveillance camera is incorporated through the M-bed microcontroller. Presence of a person is detected and face recognition is carried out using various image processing techniques. More »»

2015

S. S. Babu and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Design and Implementation of Two--Wheeled Self-Balancing Vehicle Using Accelerometer and Fuzzy Logic”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer and Communication Technologies, vol. 381 . Springer, pp. 45-53, 2015.[Abstract]


Two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle commercially known as “Segway” is a promising upcoming mode of transportation in many fields viz. corporate worlds, tourist place, medical field, or for personal use. In this paper, a control strategy and sensor-based control of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle is proposed. The concept of the stabilizing the vehicle is inspired from the inverse pendulum theory. Based on steady-state space mathematical model, the entire system control is divided into two subsystems: self-balance control system (forward or backward motion balancing) and yaw control system (left or right movement). The control strategy used is fuzzy logic and is applied to both subsystems. A prototype model of the self-balancing vehicle is developed and the proposed mathematical model and control logic are verified by testing on the developed prototype. More »»

2014

N. R. Prasadh and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Measurement of current and power consumption in the order of milli-watt resolution in processor core level”, Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), 2014 International Conference on. 2014.[Abstract]


The increasing popularity of low power applications has resulted in the need for implementing power consumption reduction techniques. Measurement of power consumption has gained importance due to the fact that the measurement of total power consumed may result in exploring newer mechanisms for reducing the power consumption of the system. Devising appropriate po w e r consumption reduction techniques for an application becomes possible only with a correct knowledge of the amount of power consumed by different modules of the system. This work presents the design and development of a prototype module for power consumption measurement which could be used on core level of a system. The main objective the work includes power measurement of the processor core while executing different application tasks and impact of supply voltage and operating frequency on power consumption measurement.

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2014

K. Singh and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Energy Optimization of Embedded Processors using Genetic Algorithm”, International Conference on Communication and Computing (ICC-2014). Alpha College of Engineering, Bangalore, India, pp. 237-245, 2014.

2014

K. Singh and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Schedule length optimization by elite-genetic algorithm using rank based selection for multiprocessor systems”, Embedded Systems (ICES), 2014 International Conference on. 2014.[Abstract]


Scheduling tasks in a multiprocessor system is found to be a NP-hard problem and a considerable amount of time is used up when it is solved using conventional techniques. Therefore, evolutionary algorithms like Genetic Algorithms (GA) have been explored for scheduling tasks in a multiprocessor system. GA can be implemented in various manners. This paper investigates the performance of GA with two different selection operators. This paper also studies how introducing elitism effects the performance of GA. Extensive simulations have been carried out in order to find the better candidate among the two selection operators. The decision is made depending on stability of the GA output, the rate of convergence of output and the ability of GA to give an output which is as close as possible to the actual output.

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2014

S. Narayan, Prasannakumar, T. V., Prasanth, M., N Velavan, P., N Kumar, P., and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “A priority based exploration algorithm for path planning of an unmanned ground vehicle”, International Conference on Embedded Systems (ICES), 2014 . IEEE, 2014.[Abstract]


Robots plays a vital role and are widely used in surveillance applications where humans cannot reach, due to the associated danger. For such applications, use of Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) is highly demanded by incorporating algorithms for robot localization and path planning. This paper proposes development of a three-wheeled robot using sensors and wireless transmission network and methods to map the unknown environment to a PC through a visual map created using Processing software. The information collected by the robot is to be transmitted wirelessly to a control PC, located far away. A priority based exploration algorithm for path planning to navigate the robot through the unknown even environment avoiding the static obstacles with the help of ultrasonic sensors to reach the destination through the shortest path, is implemented using PIC16F877A microcontroller. More »»

2014

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and T.B., I., “A Power-aware Multiprocessor Based Laboratory Automation and Resource Management System”, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (IEEE ICCIC). Parks Engineering College, Karumathampatti, Coimbatore, India, pp. 1219-1222, 2014.[Abstract]


Due to the advancements in technology, new and complex techniques are explored and are becoming a common practice. Automation systems are prevalent in all application domains whether it is home automation or factory automation. This paper presents the design and development of a Laboratory Automation and Resource Management System (LARMS). The developed system consists of heterogeneous multiprocessor systems connected and communicated to be a part of distributed networked embedded systems. The main features of LARMS are: automatic lab access through bio-metric sensors, real time clock, automatic device control based on the ambient environment conditions and human presence and the central communication controller to supervise and coordinate the entire system functioning. LARMS is implemented using PIC16F877 microcontrollers and ARM7 TDMI controller. The main contribution of the work is the implementation of a power-aware solution for LARMS. The simulation results manifest the energy solutions provided by the proposed automation and resource management system. More »»

2014

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Dr. Isha T. B., “Optimal task allocation and scheduling for power saving in multiprocessor systems”, 2014 Power and Energy Systems Conference: Towards Sustainable Energy, PESTSE 2014. IEEE Computer Society, Bangalore, 2014.[Abstract]


The wide spread use of multiprocessor system demands for energy saving. Energy issues being the most critical one need prime attention and prevention. This paper presents methods for power consumption reduction in multiprocessor systems by optimally allocating the jobs and scheduling them. The job allocation in multiprocessor systems is very crucial and a novel allocation algorithm for reducing the number of processors is proposed in this work. Scheduling decisions are vital for the system to meet both temporal and functional requirements and is perfect when methods for energy consumption reduction are incorporated into it. The current work aims to reduce power consumption of an embedded processor by Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) technique. The simulation results show a considerable amount of reduction in processor utilization and power consumption. © 2014 IEEE.

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2013

Dr. Anju Pillai S., Punnekkat, S., and Isha, T. B., “Energy Minimization in Real Time Embedded Systems by Control of Context Switches”, Pro. of Second International Conference on Smart Technologies for Materials, Communication, Controls, Computing and Energy (ICST). Vel Tech Dr. RR & Dr. SR Technical University, Chennai, India, pp. 428-432, 2013.

2013

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Isha, T. B., “ERTSim: An Embedded Real-time Task Simulator for Scheduling”, IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research(ICCIC). Vickram College of Engineering, Madurai, India, pp. 724-727, 2013.

2012

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Dr. Isha T. B., “A new real time simulator for task scheduling”, 2012 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, ICCIC 2012. Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 2012.[Abstract]


There are many new and existing scheduling policies within the field of real time scheduling theory. But, only a few of them are useful for real time implementation. The main difficulty is in reforming the Real Time Operating System (RTOS) to integrate the scheduling policy, which needs a skilled programming. Due to this hinderance, it is difficult to test and evaluate different policies and compare their performances. So a simulation study becomes inevitable. The available simulators mainly refer to only certain class of scheduling problem with particular execution sequence. This paper presents a software simulator which can be used to measure the performance of existing and new scheduling algorithms. The simulator is also integrated with different feasibility analysis and calculation of different scheduling aspects. © 2012 IEEE.

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2011

A. Lekshmi Mohan and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Dynamic voltage scaling for power consumption reduction in real-time mixed task model”, Int. conference on Computer Science Engineering and Applications. 2011.[Abstract]


The reduction in energy consumption without any deadline miss is one of the main challenges in real-time embedded systems. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a technique that reduces the power consumption of processors by utilizing various operating points provided to the DVS processor. These operating points consist of pairs of voltage and frequency. The selection of operating points can be done based on the load to the system at a particular point of time. In this work DVS is applied to both periodic and sporadic tasks, and an average of 40% of energy is reduced. The energy consumption of the processor is further reduced by 2-10% by reducing the number of pre-emption and frequency switching. More »»

2011

A. A. Paul and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Reducing the number of context switches in real time systems”, Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Process Automation, Control and Computing, PACC 2011. Coimbatore, 2011.[Abstract]


In real time scheduling, preemption is one of the causes of run time overhead and large memory requirements. This paper focuses on reducing the number of preemptions in Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling using a technique called Dynamic Preemption Threshold Scheduling (DPTS) in uniprocessor platform. This method is an improvement over existing threshold algorithms, but the complexity is slightly higher. The simulation results show that context switches are reduced by about 91% on an average. This technique is also applied for scheduling of sporadic requests along with periodic tasks. Preemptions that occur when tasks share resources and are required to synchronize are also reduced in this work. Our work also focuses on task set generation with limited hyperperiod (L.C.M. of periods of the tasks). © 2011 IEEE.

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2010

A. Thekkilakattil, Dr. Anju Pillai S., Dobrin, R., and Punnekkat, S., “Reducing the Number of Preemptions in Real-Time Systems Scheduling by CPU Frequency Scaling”, {18th International Conference on Real-Time and Network Systems}. Toulouse, France, 2010.[Abstract]


Controlling the number of preemptions in real-time systems is highly desirable in order to achieve an efficient system design in multiple contexts. For example, the delays due to context switches account for high preemption overheads which detrimentally impact the system schedulability. Preemption avoidance can also be potentially used for the efficient control of critical section behaviors in multi-threaded applications. At the same time, modern processor architectures provide for the ability to selectively choose operating frequencies, primarily targeting energy efficiency as well as system performance. In this paper, we propose the use of CPU Frequency Scaling for controlling the preemptive behavior of real-time tasks. We present a framework for selectively eliminating preemptions, that does not require modifications to the task attributes or to the underlying scheduler. We evaluate the proposed approach by four different heuristics through extensive simulation studies More »»

2010

Aa Thekkilakattil, Dr. Anju Pillai S., Dobrin, Ra, and Punnekkat, Sa, “Preemption control using frequency scaling in fixed priority scheduling”, Proceedings - IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, EUC 2010. Hong Kong, pp. 281-288, 2010.[Abstract]


Controlling the number of preemptions in realtime systems is highly desirable in order to achieve an efficient system design in multiple contexts. For example, the delays due to context switches account for high preemption overheads which detrimentally impact the system schedulability. Preemption control can also be potentially used for the efficient control of critical section behaviors in multi-threaded applications. At the same time, modern processor architectures provide for the ability to selectively choose operating frequencies, primarily targeting energy efficiency as well as system performance. In this paper, we propose the use of CPU Frequency Scaling for controlling the preemptive behavior of real-time tasks. We present a framework for selectively eliminating preemptions, that does not require modifications to the task attributes or to the underlying scheduler. We evaluate the proposed approach by four different heuristics through extensive simulation studies. © 2010 IEEE. More »»

2009

Dr. Anju Pillai S., Thekkilakattil, A., Saravanan, V., and Aysan, H. ¨useyin, “Eureka: A Team of Autonomous Mobile Agents Competing in CyberRescue 2009”, The 30th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium. The Fairmont Hotel, Washington, D.C., USA., 2009.

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2019

Dr. Anju Pillai S., Chandraprasad, G. S., Khwaja, A. S., and Anpalagan, A., “A Service Oriented IoT Architecture for Disaster Preparedness and Forecasting System”, Internet of Things, p. 100076, 2019.[Abstract]


The development of disaster preparedness and forecasting system integrating real-time sensor data and time stringent computing is becoming increasingly important for mitigating the negative effects of disasters. In this paper, a service oriented IoT architecture for an early warning system (EWS) through implementation of machine learning (ML) algorithm in a cloud server is presented. Unlike other EWS approaches, our implementation includes layer level IoT architecture with a triple modular redundancy fault tolerant scheme for sensor network to guarantee availability of reliable and fault free sensor data to the cloud for accurate predictions. A ML algorithm is implemented for three sensor parameters viz., MQ4, MQ7 and force sensing resistor on the AWS cloud. The absolute error percentage between the actual and the predicted values are found to be 6.18%, 3.03% and 3.65%, respectively, for a set of values at 20 different time intervals.

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2017

V. Venkata Ramya, Manjunath, P. K., and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Fast Context Switches: Interrupt Driven Scheduler for ARM Cortex Platform”, Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 8317-8322, 2017.

2017

Dr. Anju Pillai S., Singh, K., Saravanan, V., Anpalagan, A., Woungang, I., and Barolli, L., “A Genetic Algorithm-based Method for Optimizing the Energy Consumption and Performance of Multiprocessor Systems”, Journal of Soft Computing, pp. 1-15, 2017.[Abstract]


In a multiprocessor system, scheduling is an NP-hard problem, and solving it using conventional techniques demands the support of evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms (GAs). Handling the energy consumption issues, while delivering the desired performance for a system, is also a challenging task. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes a GA-based method for optimizing the energy consumption and performance of multiprocessor systems using a weighted-sum approach. A performance optimization algorithm with two different selection operators, namely the proportional roulette wheel selection (PRWS) and the rank-based roulette wheel selection (RRWS), is proposed, and the impact of adding elitism in the GA is investigated. Simulation results show that for a specific task graph, using the considered selection operators with elitism yields, respectively, 16.80, 17.11 and 17.82% reduction in energy consumption with a deviation in finish time of 2.08, 2.01 and 1.76 ms when an equal weight factor of 0.5 is considered. This confirms that the selection operator RRWS is superior to PRWS. It is also seen that using elitism enhances the optimization procedure. For a given specific workload, the average percentage reduction in energy consumption with varying weight vector is in the range 12.57–19.51%, with a deviation in finish time of the schedule varying between 1.01 and 2.77 ms.

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2016

R. Manigandan and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Critical Section aware Immediate Ceiling Priority Protocol with Dynamic Frequency Scaling”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 30, 2016.[Abstract]


Objectives: Task execution under common resource sharing is challenging and finding an optimal solution which ensures minimum blocking time for critical tasks and assuring time constraints is a demanding research problem. In this paper, a new protocol that controls the access to shared resources, with minimum context switches that guarantee task deadlines are presented. Methods: The proposed algorithm: Critical Section aware Immediate Ceiling Priority Protocol (CS_aware ICPP) is further integrated with Dynamic Frequency Scaling (DFS) technique to safeguard all task instances which may miss future deadlines. An extensive simulation analysis is carried out to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with other existing synchronizing algorithms in the field. Findings: Critical sections are important because it may lead to future blocking of a high priority critical task. Applications/Improvement: From the simulation results, it is found that the proposed: CS_aware ICPP algorithm outperforms the other existing algorithms in terms of reduced context switches.

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2016

V. Praveen and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Modeling and simulation of quadcopter using PID controller”, International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, vol. 9, pp. 7151-7158, 2016.[Abstract]


Quadcopter also called as quadrotor helicopter, is popular in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). They are widely used for variety of applications due to its small size and high stability. In this paper design and development of remote controlled quadcopter using PID (Proportional Integral Derivtive) controller implemented with Ardupilot Mega board is presented. The system consists of IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) which consists of accelerometer and gyro sensors to determine the system orientation and speed control of four BLDC motors to enable the quadcopter fly in six directions. Simulations analysis of quadcopter is carried out using MATLAB Simulink. Pitch, roll and yaw responses of quadcopter is obtained and PID controller is used to stabilize the system response. Finally the prototype of quadcopter is build PID logic is embedded on it. The working and performance of quadcopter is tested and desired outputs were obtained.

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2016

S. L. Srinath and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Adaptive interplay of DVS and DPM for power consumption reduction in real-time embedded processors”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, 2016.[Abstract]


Objectives: Processors are computing elements of most of the embedded systems. As the technology is growing day by day, processors that are released in the market are mostly embedded processors. Processors are designed to perform concurrent operations and execution at a higher clock rate to meet the performance demands result in large heat dissipation and energy consumption. Thus there is an emphasis on power and energy consumption reduction in real time embedded processors. This work targets to reduce the processor power consumption without violating the real time constraints. Method: In this work, a dynamic power management technique named dynamic counters is employed in real-time system to minimize power consumption. The proposed method facilitates bounding of the events conservatively for effective bounding of future workload. It also employs scheduling ON and OFF time of the devices based on workload bounding at run-time. Simulation analysis is carried out to confirm the performance enhancement of the proposed method. Findings: Energy consumed by the processor increases with the number of event arrivals and switching of modes facilitates significant energy savings. Improvement: Run-time and memory overheads are overcome by dynamic counter technique. Effective bounding of future workload enhances computational efficiency.

More »»

2016

T. Ajay and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “An Analysis of Adaptive Cruise Control System with Focus on Real-time Scheduling”, International Journal of Applied Engineering and Research, vol. 10, pp. 90-94, 2016.

2015

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and T.B., I., “A Quantitative Study Based On Direct Measurement On Embedded Processors Limiting Context Switches For Energy Saving”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, vol. 10, 2015.[Abstract]


Priority based preemptive schedulers are preferred over non-preemptive schedulers due to their flexibility to accommodate real time tasks based on criticality. The overhead associated with a preemptive scheduler is high and with increased number of preemptions and the associated context switches, the execution pattern of tasks become highly unpredictable at run time. In this paper, an effort is made to provide an insight into the significance of controlling context switches during real time application development. The system under study consists of an ARM7 LPC2148 microcontroller, whose energy consumption measurement is carried out with the help of MBED NXP 1768 controller. A study is done by analytical verification and a software simulation using embedded C with Keil uVision IDE. The energy consumed by the processor with and without context switches is verified experimentally by direct measurement. The two factors considered for analysis are increased delay and the augmented energy dissipation during a context switch. It is seen that a substantial saving of time and energy is associated with every context switch. More »»

2015

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Dr. Isha T. B., “Laboratory Resource Management System with Intelligent Power-Aware Strategies-A Software Approach”, Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, World Scientific Publishers, vol. 24, 2015.[Abstract]


Fast growing technologies have made pervasive computing elements part of our routine life. These computing elements dissipate a lot of energy, and power optimization is one of the critical design aspects of such systems. In this work an intelligent laboratory automation and resource management system (iLARMS) is proposed, which incorporates power-aware strategies activated in software with hardware support. In the current work, investigations are carried out to observe the energy issues of the application and the processors used. Various software techniques for energy saving are incorporated in the application level and in the processor core level. The hardware implementation of the proposed resource management system is carried out using PIC16F877A and ARM7 LPC2148 microcontrollers and Intel Core 2 Duo processors. An average energy saving of the order of 48.78% was achieved with iLARMS when compared to a conventional resource management system. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company. More »»

2014

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Isha, T. B., “Regular paper Dynamic Frequency Scaling Based Energy Consumption Reduction for Power-aware Embedded Systems-A Simulation and Experimental Approach”, J. Electrical Systems, vol. 10, pp. 36–47, 2014.

2014

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and T.B., I., “Ec-A: A task allocation algorithm for energy minimization in multiprocessor systems”, International Journal of Computer, Information Science and Engineering, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, pp. 254-260, 2014.[Abstract]


With the necessity of increased processing capacity with less energy consumption; power aware multiprocessor system has gained more attention in the recent future. One of the additional challenges that is to be solved in a multi-processor system when compared to uni-processor system is job allocation. This paper presents a novel task dependent job allocation algorithm: Energy centric- Allocation (Ec-A) and Rate Monotonic (RM) scheduling to minimize energy consumption in a multiprocessor system. A simulation analysis is carried out to verify the performance increase with reduction in energy consumption and required number of processors in the system. More »»

2014

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and T.B., I., “Energy efficient task allocation and scheduling in distributed homogeneous multiprocessor systems”, WSEAS Transactions on Computers, vol. 13, pp. 613-623, 2014.[Abstract]


With the advent of semi conductor technology, the development of more complex embedded real time applications is made possible today. This accelerates the development and support for multiprocessor based systems. The paper presents the development of “a power-aware real time embedded system for temperature monitoring and control in safety critical applications”. The main objective of the work is to perform a hardware implementation of task allocation for multiprocessor systems based on task dependencies and precedence relations and schedule the real time tasks. The proposed work also provides an energy-aware solution by integrating Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling (DVFS) technique and shutting off the unused peripherals of the processor. A laboratory model of multiprocessor based experimental setup was developed to validate the functioning of algorithms using ARM7 LPC2148 microcontrollers. More »»

2014

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Dr. Isha T. B., “Dynamic frequency scaling based energy consumption reduction for power-aware embedded systems - a simulation and experimental approach”, International Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 10, pp. 36-47, 2014.[Abstract]


Energy conservation is a critical issue in battery operated systems. Energy consumption reduction of portable embedded systems is essential for increasing the battery life, enabling better system usefulness. One of the promising techniques of energy consumption reduction is Dynamic Voltage and Frequency (DVFS). In this paper, a Dynamic Frequency Scaling (DFS) method is used to reduce the energy consumed by an Atmel ATmega 16 microcontroller while executing a robotic application. A noticeable amount of energy saving was observed both by simulation and experimental validation when switching frequency was varied from rated frequency to below rated frequencies, without violating any of the temporal requirements. More »»

2013

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and B., I. T., “Factors Causing Power Consumption in an Embedded Processor - A Study”, International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management, vol. 2, pp. 300-306, 2013.[Abstract]


Processors are the computing elements of most of the embedded systems. To cater the increased performance demand, more and more transistors are fused into a single chip, which indirectly accelerates the power consumption of the system. Most of the embedded systems are portable battery powered systems. The usefulness of the system depends on the battery life, which is determined by the power consumption of the entire system. This paper presents a detailed study on the factors that influence and cause power consumption of an embedded processor/controller. The knowledge about the elements that influence the processor functioning leading to power consumption, is vital to devise newer mechanisms for power consumption reduction. The main parameters and issues that have an impact on the power consumption of an embedded processor is also discussed More »»

2013

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and A., D., “Web-Based Real Time Data Acquisition And Interactive Control Of Appliances Using Ethernet Connectivity”, International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research, vol. 3, pp. 39-46, 2013.[Abstract]


Revolution in the technology helps to increase the living standards of human life and building automation technology has a significant contribution to this advancements. The concept of internet of things binds the object around, to the web world to facilitate the remote access and control. This paper presents sharing of real time data over the internet and enable interaction and control of the device from remote location. A stand alone web server is developed using LM3S8962 stellaris family microcontroller with inbuilt ethernet controller and Light weight Internet Protocol (LwIP) stack is ported, to facilitate the supervision of home appliance. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed using web technologies provide an effective user interaction. The functionality of the prototype system is checked and verified. More »»

2012

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and , “Minimal Task Allocation in Multiprocessors using improved next-fit for RM scheduling”, International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 47, pp. 39-44, 2012.[Abstract]


Task-processor allocation in multiprocessors can be accomplished efficiently for reducing the required number of processors for the given task set, accounting reduced power consumption with maximum processor utilization. This work is based on next fit algorithm using Rate Monotonic Algorithm (RMA) for a fixed priority system. The work proposes a minimal task allocation algorithm for multiprocessor environment. The proposed method reduces the number of processors required for a given task set using improved next fit algorithm and the same has been evaluated and tested. The proposed algorithm gives better results when there is large number of tasks in the system More »»

2011

A. Lekshmi Mohan and Dr. Anju Pillai S., “Dynamic voltage scaling with reduced frequency switching and preemptions”, International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering IJEEE, vol. 1, 2011.[Abstract]


Dynamic Voltage Scaling is an innovative technique for reducing the power consumption of a processor by utilizing its hardware functionality. Dynamic Voltage Scaling processors are mainly focusing on power management. Such processors can be switch between discrete frequency and voltage levels. The main challenges of Dynamic Voltage Scaling are increased number of preemptions and frequency switching. A part of dynamic energy as well as CPU time is lost due to these processes. To limit such processes, an algorithm is proposed which reduces both unwanted frequency switching and preemptions. More »»

2011

Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Arya, P., “Reduction of Context Switches due to Task Synchronization in Uniprocessor and Multiprocessor Platforms”, International Journal of Computer and Communication Technology, vol. 2, 2011.[Abstract]


The problem of frequent context switches in multitasking is a real scheduling overhead which wastes extra CPU cycles, memory and causes much delay in scheduling. This paper focuses on reducing the context switches that result due to blocking when jobs are required to synchronize. The Priority Ceiling Protocol (PCP) is used to synchronize the tasks in uniprocessor as well as multiprocessor platforms. The jobs are scheduled using Earliest Deadline First (EDF) policy. The simulation results show that the context switches are reduced by about 20% on an average using our technique of avoiding context switches due to blocking. More »»

Publication Type: Presentation

Year of Publication Title

2017

Dr. Anju Pillai S., Saravanan, V., and Naik, K., “Power-aware IoT Devices for the Future”, The 15th ACM International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services, The 2nd MobiSys Women's Workshop, Niagara Falls, NY, USA. 2017.

Projects Supervised

Year

Details

2019-2020

Fall detection system for assisted living of elderly people, Sejal Badgujar, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (On-going)

2019-2020

Water quality prediction system, Neha Radhakrishnan, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (On-going)

2018-2019

Design of Criticality-Aware Scheduling for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, Savithry J, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (Project work done at UPV, Spain)

2018-2019

Predictive Maintenance to achieve Zero Breakdown in Utility Plants, Omkar Motaghare, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2018-2019

Design And Development Of An Embedded Webserver, Lashmi K,

(Internship project at Microchip), M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2018-2019

Dynamic Task Allocation and Scheduling for Multicore Electronics Control Unit (ECU), Mohd Faizan, MTech Automotive Electronics, ECE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2017-2018

Disaster Detection In Mines Using Predictive Algorithms, Gaddam Sarath Chandra Prasad, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2017-2018

Fast Context Switches: Interrupt Driven Scheduler for ARM Cortex Platforms, Varahagiri Venkata Ramya, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2017-2018

In Vehicle Driver Health Monitoring System – Modeling of Piezoelectric Sensor, Subramanian N, MTech Automotive Engineering, Mechanical Engineering department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2017-2018

Implementation and Verification of Fault Tolerant Schedule in Real Time Operating System, Abhijith Dhandha, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2016-2017

Optimal Allocation And Scheduling For Performance-Power Evaluation on Multi-core Automotive ECU’s, Sneha P, M.Tech. Automotive Electronics, ECE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2016-2017

Smart Connected Campus, Thotta Narendra Prasad, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2016-2017

Code Configuration Tool for Real Time Systems, Flemin Jose, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2016-2017

Digital Sensor Simulation Frame Work for Hardware-in-the-loop Testing, Aravind B, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2015 - 2016

Adaptive Interplay of DVS and DPM Techniques for Energy Minimization in Real-time Embedded Processors, Srinath S. L., M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2015 - 2016

Energy-aware IoT Devices for Multiprocessor Systems, Manigandan R., M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2015 - 2016

“Remote Control Quad-copter for Surveillance,” V. Praveen, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2014 - 2015

“Runtime Measurement Tool for Real-time Embedded System,” Sharath K., M.Tech. Automotive Engineering, ECE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (Co-supervisor)

2014 - 2015

Design, Implementation and Maintenance of Test Automation Mechanism for Industry Implementation using Human Machine Interface Devices,” Aarathi K, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (Internal Guide) (Project work carried out in Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore)

2014 - 2015

Secure USB,” Ajay Thallappilly, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (Internal Guide) (Project work carried out in UNIK Systems, Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad)

2014 - 2015

An Approach for Customization of Content Delivery Network and Testing Automation,” Sunu S. Babu, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (Internal Guide) (Project work carried out in Alcatel-Lucent India Ltd., Chennai)

2013 - 2014

“Development and Implementation of CAN Device Driver for RH850 Microprocessor Series with AUTOSAR Software Conformance,” Ram Prasadh Narayan, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore. (Internal Guide) (Project work carried out in KPIT Cummins, Pune)

2013 - 2014

“Power optimization of Embedded processors using Genetic Algorithms,” Kaumudhi Singh, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2013 - 2014

“Path Planning of Autonomous Ground Vehicle in Unknown Environment,” Narayan S., Prasanna Kumar T.V., Prasanth M., Praveen Velavan N.,B.Tech. Project, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2013 - 2014

“Design of a Control System for an Inverted Pendulum,” K.T.Jeevan Shagar, D.K. Mithun, L.Prithvin, , B.Tech. Project, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2012 - 2013

Web-based real time data acquisition and interactive control of appliances using Ethernet connectivity,” Dinesh A., M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2012 - 2013

“Surface based wireless energy transfer for mobile charging,” Chanrahaas C.S., Gautham R.V., Rajasekhar J., Manikanta M., B.Tech. Project, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2011 - 2012

“Real time simulator,” Saranga Mohan, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2011 - 2012

“Task processor assignment and multi-processor scheduling,” Muthu Kumar, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2011 - 2012

“Smart energy dashboard,” Sarangi K, Sreenidhi M., Kanimozi P., N. Bhuvaneswari, B.Tech. Project, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2010 - 2011

“Dynamic voltage scaling for energy consumption reduction in real-time embedded systems,” Arya Lakshmi Mohan, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2010 – 2011

“Dynamic preemption threshold scheduling in real-time systems,” Arya Paul, M.Tech. Embedded Systems, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

2010 – 2011

“Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor,” Prabu T., M.Tech. Power Electronics, EEE department, ASE, Coimbatore.

Subject Expertise

Real time operating systems, Distributed Computing, Network Embedded Systems, Multicore architecture, Fault tolerant systems, Embedded System design, Digital Systems, Microprocessor and Microcontrollers.

Research Area

Power-aware Embedded Systems, Real-time Systems, Real-Time Operating Systems, Energy-aware Scheduling, Embedded System Design, Multi-processor and Multi-core Architectures, Fault-tolerant systems, Wireless Sensor Networks, and Electric vehicle challenges.