Dr. Sobha George currently serves as Assistant Professor at the Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Kochi.


Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title


Rakesh P. S., Leyanna Susan George, Teena Mary Joy, Sobha George, Renjini, B. A., and Beena, K. V., “Anemia Among School Children in Ernakulam District, Kerala, India”, Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 114-118, 2019.[Abstract]

Anaemia has significant negative impact on the health of school children including poor scholastic performance and cognitive impairment. The present study was done with the objective to estimate the prevalence of anemia among school going children in Ernakulam district, Kerala and to determine a few factors associated with anemia. Hemoglobin of 880 students of 6th to 9th standard in 11 randomly selected schools of Ernakulam district was estimated using HemoCue 201 photometer. Prevalence of anaemia was expressed using frequencies and percentages. Univariate analysis for factors associated with anemia was done. Selected variables were entered into a logistic regression model. The prevalence of anemia was estimated to be 44% (95% CI 40.67-47.33). Among them 0.8% had severe anemia, 3.5% had moderate anemia and 39.7% had mild anemia. Among them 21.3% and 52.6% reported not in the habit of consuming green leafy vegetables and citrus fruits respectively, at least three times on a usual week. Anemia among children was associated with female gender (adjusted OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.16-2.04), higher age group (adjusted OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.69-2.91) and regular intake of tea/coffee along with major meals (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.20-2.04). Anemia among school going children in Ernakulam remains a public health problem and was more among females, higher age groups (12-15 years) and those reported regular intake of tea/coffee along with major meals. The consumption of iron rich foods among the students was poor. Behavior change communication for dietary modification and universal supplementation of iron is warranted.

More »»


Teena Mary Joy, Sobha George, Paul, N., Renjini, B. A., Rakesh P. S., and Sreedevi, A., “Assessment of Vaccine Coverage and Associated Factors Among Children in Urban Agglomerations of Kochi, Kerala, India.”, J Family Med Prim Care, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 91-96, 2019.[Abstract]

Context: Urban population in India is growing exponentially. The public sector urban health delivery system has so far been limited in its reach and is far from adequate.

Aims: This study aims to estimate routine immunization coverage and associated factors among children (12-23 months and 60-84 months) in the urban Kochi Metropolitan Area of Kerala.

Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kochi Metropolitan area.

Materials and Methods: A cluster sampling technique was used to collect data on immunization status from 310 children aged between 12 and 23 months and 308 children aged between 60 and 84 months.

Statistical Analysis: Crude coverage details for each vaccine were estimated using percentages and confidence intervals. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted to identify factors associated with immunization coverage.

Results: Among the children aged 12-23 months, 89% (95% CI 85.5%-92.5%) were fully immunized, 10% were partially immunized, and 1% unimmunized. Less than 10 years of schooling among mothers (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.20-4.81) and living in a nuclear family (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.06-3.14) were determinants associated with partial or unimmunization of children as per multivariate analysis. The coverage of individual vaccines was found to decrease after 18 months from 90% to 75% at 4-5 years for Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus (DPT) booster. Bivariate analysis found lower birth order and belonging to the Muslim religion as significant factors for this decrease.

Conclusion: Education of the mother and nuclear families emerged as areas of vulnerability in urban immunization coverage. Inadequate social support and competing priorities with regard to balancing work and home probably lead to delay or forgetfulness in vaccination. Therefore, a locally contextualized comprehensive strategy with strengthening of the primary health system is needed to improve the immunization coverage in urban areas.

More »»


A. Ganapathy, Mishra, A., Soni, M. Rani, Kumar, P., Sadagopan, M., Kanthi, A. Vittal, Patric, I. Rosetta Pi, Sobha George, Sridharan, A., Thyagarajan, T. C., Aswathy, S. L., Vidya, H. K., Chinnappa, S. M., Nayanala, S., Prakash, M. B., Raghavendrachar, V. G., Parulekar, M., Gowda, V. K., Dr. Sheela Nampoothiri, Menon, R. N., Pachat, D., Udani, V., Naik, N., Kamate, M., A Devi, R. Rama, Kunju, P. A. Mohammed, Nair, M., Hegde, A. Udwadia, M Kumar, P., Sundaram, S., Tilak, P., Puri, R. D., Shah, K., Sheth, J., Hasan, Q., Sheth, F., Agrawal, P., Katragadda, S., Veeramachaneni, V., Chandru, V., Hariharan, R., and Mannan, A. U., “Multi-gene Testing in Neurological Disorders Showed an Improved Diagnostic Yield: Data from Over 1000 Indian Patients.”, J Neurol, 2019.[Abstract]

<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>Neurological disorders are clinically heterogeneous group of disorders and are major causes of disability and death. Several of these disorders are caused due to genetic aberration. A precise and confirmatory diagnosis in the patients in a timely manner is essential for appropriate therapeutic and management strategies. Due to the complexity of the clinical presentations across various neurological disorders, arriving at an accurate diagnosis remains a challenge.</p>

<p><b>METHODS: </b>We sequenced 1012 unrelated patients from India with suspected neurological disorders, using TruSight One panel. Genetic variations were identified using the Strand NGS software and interpreted using the StrandOmics platform.</p>

<p><b>RESULTS: </b>We were able to detect mutations in 197 genes in 405 (40%) cases and 178 mutations were novel. The highest diagnostic rate was observed among patients with muscular dystrophy (64%) followed by leukodystrophy and ataxia (43%, each). In our cohort, 26% of the patients who received definitive diagnosis were primarily referred with complex neurological phenotypes with no suggestive diagnosis. In terms of mutations types, 62.8% were truncating and in addition, 13.4% were structural variants, which are also likely to cause loss of function.</p>

<p><b>CONCLUSION: </b>In our study, we observed an improved performance of multi-gene panel testing, with an overall diagnostic yield of 40%. Furthermore, we show that NGS (next-generation sequencing)-based testing is comprehensive and can detect all types of variants including structural variants. It can be considered as a single-platform genetic test for neurological disorders that can provide a swift and definitive diagnosis in a cost-effective manner.</p>

More »»


L. V.N, Sobha George, and Paul, N., “Study on Risk Factors Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy among the patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus in South India: Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study ”, National Journal of research in Community Medicine, 2017.


Sobha George, Paul, N., Francis, P. T., and Leelamoni, K., “Prevalence of Domestic Accidents in a Rural Area of Kerala: A Cross Sectional Study”, International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, vol. 4, pp. 949–953} doi = {10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20170949, 2017.[Abstract]

Background: Domestic accidents are important worldwide public health problems which require increased attention. A domestic accident means an accident that takes place at home or its immediate surroundings. Domestic accidents can result in disability and loss of productivity. The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of domestic accidents in a rural area and the various epidemiological factors associated with it. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done in a rural area of Kerala. The study period was April-May 2016. Face to face interview with a responsible adult informant was done to collect information from 403 households consisting of 1826 individuals using a semi-structured questionnaire after getting consent. Data was tabulated using MS Excel and analysed using SPSS version 20. Qualitative variables expressed as percentages and association found out using Chi square test.Results: The prevalence of domestic accidents in the community was found to be 10.5% (9.14 – 11.95, 95% CI). Majority of the victims were females (66%). Falls were the most prevalent type of domestic accident (33.5%) and it was found to be significantly associated with age, educational status, place of occurrence and activity during accident. First aid kits were available only in 38.2% of houses. Conclusions: Increased awareness, specially among female population is needed to reduce domestic accidents. Take extra care of the extreme ages as they are more vulnerable to falls. It is essential that every house has a first aid kit.

More »»


V. N. Laghima, Sobha George, and Paul, N., “Study on Lifestyle Risk Factors in School Children and its Relationship to their Mothers”, National Journal of Research in Community Medicine, vol. 6, p. 313, 2017.[Abstract]

Globally Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are a rnajor cause of morbidity and mortality. 1'hey occur atier exposure to a set of lifestyle risk factors. Obesity and hypertension among adults has its antecedents during childhood .When governments are assessing ways to generate finances for management of NCDs, it is worthwhile to give due irnportance to preventiveservices.Objectives:Tostudyrelationshipoflifestyleriskfactors(BMI&amp;BP)betweenschool childrenand their rnothers ald to study the factors associated with BMI&amp; BP. Methodology: School based cross sectiorral study done among 225 studelts and their mothers in three settings,rural,tribal and urban. Students and mothers were interviewed using questionnair-e in local language after obtaining consent. Height, Weight and BP measured using standardized instrurrretrts. Data tabulated usi6g MS excel , analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: There was statistically sigrrificarrt associalion between BMI of rnother and student.Association between BP ol' mother arrd student was not statistically signilicarrt. Association betweep BMI and BP was statistically significant among rnothers and students. Considering BMl, statistically significarrt association was noted for physical activity, use of non-smokirrg tobacco and desire to change weight. Considering BP, desire to change weight, use of non-smoking tobacco and intake of food frotn outside showed statistically signilicant associatiorr. Conclusion:Maintaiuirrg normal BMI is important as it is found to affect next generatiotr. Incleased llMl is associatedwithabnormal Pvalues,whichisaprecursorforlifbstylediseases.Hencecotrtrol ofBMI andBPisessential ttr protect future generations from lifestyle diseases.

More »»
PDF iconstudy-on-lifestyle-risk-factors-in-school-children-and-its-relationship-to-their-mothers.pdf


Sobha George, Leelamoni, K., and Paul, N., “Determinants of Quality of Life of Elderly in a Rural Population of Kerala, India”, NJRCM, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 46-51, 2016.


Sobha George, Francis, P. T., Paul, N., and Leelamoni, K., “Depression Among Elderly :A Comparative Study Among the Elderly Living In Old Age Homes In Ernakulam ,Kerala State,India”, Internatinal Journal of Emerging Technology & Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 62-66, 2016.


Sobha George, Thomas, D. Ann Mary, Kurien, M. Beteena, Vasudevan, D. Sanjeev, and Leelamoni, D. K., “A BODY MASS INDEX BASED NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT OF A TRIBAL POPULATION IN KERALA”, Indian Journal of Rural Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, 2013.