Dr. Arun joined the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Amrita in June 2010.

He took his B. D. S. and M. D. S. degress from A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore and was awarded the Best Outgoing P. G. student in October 2010. During the same year, Dr. Arun was invited as a guest speaker to lecture on Preventive protocols in Childhood Leukemia at the Global International Pediatric Summit held at Nanjing, China.

At the 33rd National Conference of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry held at Mangalore during November 4 – 6, 2011, Dr. Arun's paper titled "Do we need to safeguard tooth restorative materials from aerated beverages?" was awarded the Best Paper prize. He was also a guest speaker for the same conference and lectured on "Promoting Medication Safety in Pediatric Population". In the same conference, his name was nominated one among the top 10 pediatric dentists below 35 years of age for the ‘Young Pedodontist Award’.

Dr. Arun has widely published papers in national and international journals. He has 9 international and 3 national publications to his credit.


Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title


N. Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Janardhanan, S., Kumaran, P., Xavier, A. Mamachan, and Govinda, B., “Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 475-480, 2016.[Abstract]

Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4-7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P < 0.05]). However, intergroup comparison between MTA and TheraCal showed no statistical difference in reparative dentin formation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. More »»


M. Ma Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Dr. Sajitha Krishnan, Kumaran, P., G. Sangeetha, B., Xavier, A. Mamachan, and Sureshkumar, Ja, “Evaluation of salivary interleukin-6 in children with early childhood caries after treatment”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 198-202, 2016.[Abstract]

Background: The role of cytokines as a marker in the oral inflammatory process in ECC has not been fully explored before and after full mouth rehabilitation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6) in children with ECC and to compare its levels before and after comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation. Methods and Materials: Saliva samples were collected from children with ECC prior to dental treatment and 3-month post treatment. The salivary IL-6 levels were analyzed using the ELISA method. The gingival index was also timely recorded. Oral health awareness sessions were conducted for children and their parents at regular intervals during the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis used: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test compared the levels of salivary IL-6 while, the paired t test compared the values of gingival index before and after treatment. Results: The mean level of salivary IL-6 before and 3 months after treatment had reduced and this reduction was statistically significant (P&lt; 0.000). The gingival index scores had also reduced significantly 3-months post treatment (P&lt; 0.002). Conclusions: Children with ECC when completely rehabilitated and kept under frequent follow up, which includes reinforcement of oral hygiene measures and maintaining a low caries activity state, the level of inflammation (IL-6) can definitely be minimized and thereby improving the quality of life of affected children. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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V. George, Janardhanan, S. K., Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Kumaran, P., and Xavier, A. Mamachan, “Clinical and radiographic evaluation of indirect pulp treatment with MTA and calcium hydroxide in primary teeth (in-vivo study)”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 104-110, 2015.[Abstract]

Objectives: Clinical and radiographic effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (white MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) of primary teeth over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial with sample size of 40 primary molars between the age group of 5-9 years, of which, 20 teeth were considered, each for MTA and Dycal. Measurements on the digitized radiographs were performed at baseline, third and sixth month, increase in dentin was then measured using Corel Draw software. Result: Independent t-test had indicated that at the end of 3 months and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in dentin thickness with both MTA and Dycal (P-value ≤ 0.001) was found. Within the MTA group, the thickness of dentin formed was 0.089 mm ± 0.031 mm at first 3 months and 0.055 ± 0.022 mm at the second 3 months, (P ≤ 0.001) evaluated using paired t-test. In the Dycal group, increment in dentin deposited was 0.068 mm at the first 3 months and second 3 months, it was 0.030 mm (P-value ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, MTA is superior to Dycal as a good IPT medicament in primary teeth.

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F. Niloofar, Kumaran, P., Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Xavier, A. Mamachan, “Management of congenital choanal atresia: A pedodontist′s role”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 259-261, 2015.[Abstract]

Choanal atresia is a rare cryptic congenital anomaly with developmental failure of the nasal cavity to communicate with the nasophaynx, resulting in a significant physiological and anatomical alteration of the dento-facial complex. It is considered as a life-threatening or lethal congenital malformation in an obligatory nasal breathing neonate. Elective transnasal endoscopic repair is the most preferred and minimally invasive procedure to correct this anomaly. This case report describes the multi-disciplinary team approach that included pedodontists to manage the case of a 6-month-old infant with choanal atresia suffering from breathlessness, feeding difficulty, and disturbed sleep.

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A. Mamachan Xavier, Rai, Kb, Hegde, A. Mc, and Shetty, Sd, “A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study on enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with lower iron concentrations”, The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry, vol. 39, pp. 161-167, 2015.[Abstract]

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel specimens following supplementation of acidic carbonated beverages with low iron concentrations than when treated without. STUDY DESIGN: 180 enamel blocks each from primary and permanent teeth were prepared and equally subdivided (n=10) for their respective treatments in Group 1 (Coca Cola and Sprite without iron supplementation) and Group 2 (beverages supplemented with 2/5 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O). Following initial SMH estimation, the blocks were subjected to 3 treatment cycles of 5/20 minute incubation periods, equally interspaced by a 5-min treatment in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH was recorded. The results were tested using student's T test, One-way ANOVA and Kruskal Walli's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Two and five mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation produced a highly significant SMH change and calcium and phosphate reduction than when treated without (p<.0005). Both the enamel specimens showed similar patterns of mineral loss and SMH reduction, with pronounced effects in the twenty minute incubation cycles. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that 2 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation to acidic beverages is beneficial in reducing mineral loss and preserving surface microhardness of human enamel. More »»


A. Mamachan Xavier, Rai, Kb, and Hegde, A. Mb, “Total antioxidant concentrations of breastmilk-an eye-opener to the negligent”, Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 29, pp. 605-611, 2011.[Abstract]

The balance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses in the body has important systemic and oral health implications. There is convincing evidence that breastmilk containing antioxidants is important in the prevention of diseases in infancy. This study compared the total antioxidant concentration of human breastmilk expressed at different stages of lactation, stored at various temperatures and durations. Expressed breastmilk (EBM) samples of the third, seventh and 30th day were collected from women who had term and preterm deliveries (n=20). Another cohort of women (n=20) was also assessed; these women were more than five months postpartum and lactating. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of EBM was assessed at zero hours at room temperature, at 48 hours, one week post-refrigeration (4 °C), and freezing (-8 °C) respectively using the phosphomolybdenum method. The highest antioxidant levels were found in colostrum. The TAC of EBM reduced with time and at post-refrigeration and after freezing (p<0.0005). No significant difference in the mean TAC was observed between the EBM samples obtained from women with either term or preterm deliveries. The progressive loss of antioxidant content of EBM emphasizes the need of awareness and curtailment of the practice of storing and later use of EBM. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

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