Qualification: 
Ph.D, MSc, BSc
chinchubose@am.amrita.edu

Dr. Chinchu Bose is currently working as an Assistant Professor at the Amrita School of Biotechnology. He obtained an M. Sc. degree (Biotechnology) from Bharathidasan University in 2006. He has experience as a quality assurance chemist, in the pharma industry for a short period dealing with pharmaceutical production and quality control. After joining the School, he worked on the extraction of medicinal plants and isolation and characterization of compounds and their bioactivity studies. He is well-versed with the modern analytical techniques and has developed certain protocols in this context. He also focuses on developing innovative methods for isolation of target-dependent compounds. He is well established with analytical process validations and maintenance of analytical instruments such as HPLC. One of his keen interest area is value addition to underutilized plant products and development of indigenous formulations for sericulture.

Educational Qualification

  • Ph.D. in Faculty of Sciences from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.
  • M.Sc. in Biotechnology, from University of Bharathidasan, Tamil Nadu.
  • B.Sc. in Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.

Appointments

  • Quality Assurance Chemist Indchemi pharmaceuticals, Daman&Due.
  • Junior research fellow in DRDO project 2007.
  • Junior research fellow in DRDO project 2008.
  • Senior research fellow in DBT project 2009.
  • Faculty associate at Amrita school of Biotechnology 2015- 2019
  • Assistant professor at Amrita school of Biotechnology 2019

Major Research Interest

  • Natural product chemistry- Isolation and Characterization
  • DNA protectants, Antioxidants, Nitric oxide quenchers.
  • Sericulture and rural development.
  • Method development for isolation and analysis.
  • Value addition to underutilized plants or plant products.
  • Indigenous formulation and agro products.
  • Ayurvedic Biology.

Methods and Formulations Developed

  1. Green Process for Isolation of Phytochemicals (GPIP) – A new eco-friendly approach.
  2. An efficient and quick process for isolation of anacardic acids, cardols and cardanols from cashew (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) nut shell extract (CNSE).
  3. A short protocol for obtaining high value compounds gosssypin and hibifolin from Hibiscus vitifolious.
  4. A facile process for isolating quercetagetin a biologically important compound from the folwersof Tagates erectawhich is a waste product.
  5. Insect growth regulator (IGR) formulations developed from local plant sources for synchronized moulting of silk worms.
  6. Indigenous formulations from plant source developed for increased yield of silk from silkworms.
  7. A protocol for comparative studies (fingerprinting) of bioactive compounds of Seabuckthorn SBT samples was developed.
  8. Method for isolation of commercially important “SBT flavones” from seabuckthorn leaves has been developed.
  9. Standardized precipitation technique developed for separation of flavonoid glycosides and tannins in seabuckthorn leaves.
  10. An ecofriendly formulation for patina removal From Averrhoa bilimbi – A Value Addition Approach.

Training

  • Workshop on High Performance Liquid Chromatography Techniques held at the AmritaAgilent Research Center Amrita School of Biotechnology.
  • Undergone training in the division of Cancer Research at Regional Cancer Center, Thiruvananthapuram.

Projects

  • Isolation, characterization and screening of bioactive principles of medicinal plants.
  • Value addition to underutilized biosources.

Invited Lectures

  • National Seminar on the topic “Green Technologies for Natural Product Analysis” in the Department of Botany, University of Kerala.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2020

A. Vijayakumar, Madhavan*, A., Chinchu Bose, Pandurangan Nanjan, Kokkal, S. S., Veedu, A. P., Megha Prasad, Dr. Sanjay Pal, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Potent Chitin Synthase Inhibitors from Plants”, Current Bioactive Compounds, vol. 16, no. 1, 2020.[Abstract]


Background: Chitin is the main component of fungal, protozoan and helminth cell wall. Theyhelp to maintain the structural and functional characteristics of these organisms. The chitin wall is dynamicand is repaired, rearranged and synthesized as the cells develop. Active synthesis can be noticedduring cytokinesis, laying of primary septum, maintenance of lateral cell wall integrity and hyphal tipgrowth. Chitin synthesis involves coordinated action of two enzymes namely, chitin synthase (that laysnew cell wall) and chitinase (that removes the older ones). Since chitin synthase is conserved in differenteukaryotic microorganisms that can be a ‘soft target’ for inhibition with small molecules. Whenchitin synthase is inhibited, it leads to the loss of viability of cells owing to the self- disruption of thecell wall by existing chitinase.Methods: In the described study, small molecules from plant sources were screened for their ability tointerfere with hyphal tip growth, by employing Hyphal Tip Burst assay (HTB). Aspergillus niger wasused as the model organism. The specific role of these small molecules in interfering with chitin synthesiswas established with an in-vitro method. The enzyme required was isolated from Aspergillus nigerand its activity was deduced through a novel method involving non-radioactively labelled substrate. Theactivity of the potential lead molecules were also checked against Candida albicans and Caenorhabditiselegans. The latter was adopted as a surrogate for the pathogenic helminths as it shares similarity withregard to cell wall structure and biochemistry. Moreover, it is widely studied and the methodologies arewell established.Results: Out of the 11 compounds and extracts screened, 8 were found to be prospective. They werealso found to be effective against Candida albicans and Caenorhabditis elegans.Conclusion: Purified Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Fraction1 (F1) of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) ShellExtract (COSE) was found to be more effective against Candida albicans with an IC50 value of 3.04μg/mL and on L4 stage of Caenorhabditis elegans with an IC50 of 77.8 μg/mL.

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2019

Damu Sunilkumar, Drishya G., Chandrasekharan, A., Shaji, S. K., Chinchu Bose, Jossart, J., J. Jefferson P. Perry, Dr. Nandita Mishra, Dr. Geetha Kumar, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Oxyresveratrol drives caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through the induction of ROS.”, Biochem Pharmacol, p. 113724, 2019.[Abstract]


Earlier studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that Oxyresveratrol (OXY), a hydroxyl-substituted stilbene, exhibits potent inhibition of human melanoma cell proliferation. The present study defines a cytotoxic effect of OXY on the highly chemo-resistant, triple-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. OXY-mediated cell death resulted in accumulation of cells at the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, induced chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization and PARP cleavage, indicative of apoptosis. Interestingly, morphology and cell viability studies with the pan-caspase inhibitor, QVD-OPH revealed that OXY-induced cell death was caspase-independent.Docking studies also showed that OXY can bind to the S1 site of caspase-3, and could also exert an inhibitory effect on this executioner caspase. The immunoblot analysis demonstrating the absence of caspase cleavage during cell death further confirmed these findings. OXY was also observed to induce the production of reactive oxygen species, which caused the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane resulting in translocation of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) into the nucleus. Pretreatment of the cells with N-Acetyl Cysteine antioxidant prevented cell death resulting from OXY treatment. Thus, OXY initiates ROS-mediated, apoptosis-like cell death, involving mitochondrial membrane depolarization, translocation of AIF into the nucleus, and DNA fragmentation, resulting in caspase-independent cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells. The cytotoxicity manifested by OXY was also observed in 3D cell culture models and primary cells, thereby providing a basis for the utilization of OXY as a novel template for the future design of anticancer therapeutics.

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2019

Anupama Binoy, Divya Nedungadi, Katiyar, N., Chinchu Bose, Dr. Sahadev Shankarappa, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Nandita Mishra, “Plumbagin induces paraptosis in cancer cells by disrupting the sulfhydryl homeostasis and proteasomal function”, Chemico-Biological Interactions, p. 108733, 2019.[Abstract]


Plumbagin (PLB) is an active secondary metabolite extracted from the roots of Plumbago rosea. In this study, we report that plumbagin effectively induces paraptosis by triggering extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation followed by cell death in triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and non-small lung cancer cells (A549) but not in normal lung fibroblast cells (WI-38). The vacuoles originated from the dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and were found to be empty. The cell death induced by plumbagin was neither apoptotic nor autophagic. Plumbagin induced ER stress mainly by inhibiting the chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S proteasome as also evident from the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. The vacuolation and cell death were found to be independent of reactive oxygen species generation but was effectively inhibited by thiol antioxidant suggesting that plumbagin could modify the sulfur homeostasis in the cellular milieu. Plumbagin also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential eventually decreasing the ATP production. This is the first study to show that Plumbagin induces paraptosis through proteasome inhibition and disruption of sulfhydryl homeostasis and thus further opens up the lead molecule to potential therapeutic strategies for apoptosis-resistant cancers.

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2019

Divya Nair, Muralidharan Vanuopadath, Balasubramanian, A., Iyer, A., Ganesh, S., Anil, A. Nair, Vikraman, V., Pillai, P., Chinchu Bose, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Pai, J. Gopalakris, and Nair, S. Sadasivan, “Phlorotannins from Padina tetrastromatica: structural characterisation and functional studies”, Journal of Applied Phycology, pp. 1–11, 2019.[Abstract]


In this study, LC–MS/MS-based structural characterisation of phlorotannins from Padina tetrastromatica, a marine brown macroalga collected from South-West coastal region of Kerala, and its bioactivities are presented. The tandem mass spectrometric data revealed a series of phlorotannins with degree of polymerisation ranging from 2 to 18. The characteristic neutral loss of tandem mass spectra further confirmed that these molecules belong to fucophlorethol class of phlorotannins. DPPH assay of the HPLC-purified, phlorotannin-enriched fraction possesses significant free radical-scavenging activity. Cell viability assay indicated that phlorotannin concentration ranging from 1.5 to 50.0 μg mL−1 is non-toxic to THP-1 cell lines. Anti-inflammatory assay performed through gelatin zymography confirmed that phlorotannins ameliorated high-glucose-induced pro-MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner whereas the level of pro-MMP-2 remains unaltered. The antimicrobial assays carried out using both the crude and HPLC-purified phlorotannin fraction showed its anti-MRSA potential.

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2018

S. Meppoyilam, Chinchu Bose, Reghu, A. P., K, A., P.J., G., Kuriakose, G., M.J., R., K., V., Ajith Madhavan, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Sanjay Pal, “Quick screening of extract from plant waste for control of specific pathogens in wastewater by resazurin assay”, Pollution Research, vol. 37, pp. 160-165, 2018.[Abstract]


Biological control of infection in wastewater and compost is posed to be ecologically and economically very attractive but needs a detailed understanding of the complex interaction of the abiotic and biotic factors controlling infection. We intend to screen different cheap natural compounds from plant biomass waste which can effectively control infection in wastewater/ compost. Resazurin (alamarBlue®) based viability method is a sensitive and cost effective assay which can be adopted to screen antimicrobial compounds with high throughput compared to culture based methods. However, the assay needs to be standardized for each type of bacterial species as their metabolic activity varies widely. Antimicrobial assay generally requires substantial (12-24 h) time for both culture and fluorescence based assay. In the present study, resazurin assay was standardized for Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus where time required was reduced to 4 h. This method was utilized for the screening of plant extracts (Cocos nucifera, Areca catechu and Allium cepa) from plant waste material against target microorganisms. Among the extracts tested, MEK (Methyl ethyl ketene) extract of onion peel (Allium cepa) showed maximum (2-log) reduction in relative fluorescence unit (RFU) for both Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. These results were compared with conventional culture based techniques as well. Thus our resazurin based assay method shows a good promise for rapid screening of the compounds against the two important human pathogens, S. typhi and S. aureus.

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2018

Chinchu Bose, “Effect of phytoecdysteroids isolated from diels and Coscinium fenestratum (gaertn.) colebr analogue isolated from Cullen corylifolium medik of bombyxmori under field condition”, International Journal of Current Advanced Research , pp. 710746-10752, 2018.

2018

C. Madhavan Sreejit, Chinchu Bose, Dr. Asoke Banerji, and Thomas, P. Mathew, “Bioprospection of Kerala Flora for the Multipurpose Drug - Phytoecdysoids”, Journal of Biological and Chemical Research , vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 115-123, 2018.[Abstract]


Phytoecdysoids are analogues of the arthropod steroid hormone ecdysterone, found in plants which are apparently non-toxic to mammals with a wide range of pharmacological - adaptogenic, anabolic, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, immunoprotective, wound healing, and perhaps even anti-tumor- activities. Though they have been reported from more than 100 terrestrial plant families, till date, only less than 2 % of the world’s flora has been investigated for their presence. Considering its pharmacological activities and extremely non toxic nature, it can very well be the darling of pharmaceutical companies in future. Kerala, being a part of the mighty Western Ghats range has a huge potential in exploiting its rich, unique and highly endemic biodiversity. A bio prospection study for ecdysteroids has been done with regard to the Angiosperm flora of the state for the first time. Fifty plant species were screened from the study area. A simple protocol for screening ecdysteroids using very less amount of the plant source was developed using ultra sonication and Thin Layer Chromatography. Ten species were found positive for phytoecdysoids. Ecdysterone was reported for the first time ever from Coscinium fenestratum

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2018

A. Vijayakumar, Ajith Madhavan, Chinchu Bose, Nanjan Pandurangan, Sindhu Shetty K., Archana Palillamvedu, Megha Prasad, Dr. Sanjay Pal, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Potent Chitin Synthase Inhibitors from Plants”, Current Bioactive Compounds, vol. 14, 2018.

2018

S. E. Sajeevan, M. Chatterjee, V. Paul, G. Baranwal, V. A. Kumar, Chinchu Bose, A. Banerji, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, B. P. Prasanth, and Dr. Raja Biswas, “Impregnation of Catheters with Anacardic Acid from Cashew nut Shell Prevents Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Development.”, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 1286-1295, 2018.[Abstract]


AIM: The effect of anacardic acid impregnation on catheter surfaces for the prevention of Staphylococcus aureus attachments and biofilm formations were evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Silicon catheter tubes were impregnated using different concentrations of anacardic acids (0·002-0·25%). Anacardic acids are antibacterial phenolic lipids from cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) shell oil. Anacardic acid-impregnated silicon catheters revealed no significant haemolytic activity and were cytocompatible against fibroblast cell line (L929). Sustained release of anacardic acids was observed for 4 days. Anacardic acid-impregnated silicon catheters efficiently inhibited S. aureus colonization and the biofilm formation on its surface. The in vivo antibiofilm activity of anacardic acid-impregnated catheters was tested in an intraperitoneal catheter-associated medaka fish infection model. Significant reduction in S. aureus colonization on anacardic acid-impregnated catheter tubes was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that anacardic acid-impregnated silicon catheters may help in preventing catheter-related staphylococcal infections. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study opens new directions for designing antimicrobial phytochemical-coated surfaces with ideal antibiofilm properties and could be of great interest for biomedical research scientists.

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2018

Pandurangan Nanjan, Chinchu Bose, M. Sreejith, Veni C K, Anjana M Amrita, and Anjana R P., “Synthesis, bioactivities and in-silico docking studies of azaleatin-a quercetin partial methyl ether; SAR study.”, vol. 14, 2018.[Abstract]


Azaleatin- a lesser known partially methylated flavonoid, has been synthesized efficiently through MOM protection and deprotections from quercetin. The synthesized compound and closely related partially methylated flavonoids (SAR) were subjected for the investigation of α-amylase and antioxidant activities. Among the compounds tested, azaleatin was found to be best inhibitor for α-amylase with acceptable radical scavenging activity than closely related compounds. Further, in-silico modelling studies indicated that azaleatin forms hydrogen bonds with the key amino acid residues such as Gln63, Arg195 and Asp197 of α-amylase receptor. Acarbose was used as positive control for α-amylase inhibition.

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2017

Damu Sunilkumar, Chinchu Bose, Sanu K Shaji, Nanjan Pandurangan, Geetha B Kumar, Asoke Banerji, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Coconut Shell Derived Bioactive Compound Oxyresveratrol Mediates Regulation Of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9”, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 202 – 210, 2017.

2016

Sweatha V. Nair, Baranwal, G., Chatterjee, M., Sachu, A., Vasudevan, A. Kumar, Chinchu Bose, Dr. Asoke Banerji, and Dr. Raja Biswas, “Antimicrobial activity of plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone from Plumbago rosea, against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.”, International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 306, no. 4, pp. 237-48, 2016.[Abstract]


Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens. Despite causing a number of independent infections, both pathogens can co-infect to cause urinary tract infections, skin infections, biofilm associated infections, sepsis and pneumonia. Infections of these two pathogens especially their biofilm associated infections are often difficult to treat using currently available anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents. In order to identify a common anti-microbial agent which could confer a broad range of protection against their infections, we screened several phytochemicals and identified plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a phytochemical from Plumbago species as a potent antimicrobial agent against S. aureus and C. albicans, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 5μg/ml. Antimicrobial activity of plumbagin was validated using an ex-vivo porcine skin model. For better understanding of the antimicrobial activity of plumbagin, a Drosophila melanogaster infection model was used, where D. melanogaster was infected using S. aureus and C. albicans, or with both organisms. The fly's survival rate was dramatically increased when infected flies were treated using plumbagin. Further, plumbagin was effective in preventing and dispersing catheter associated biofilms formed by these pathogens. The overall results of this work provides evidence that plumbagin, possesses an excellent antimicrobial activity which should be explored further for the treatment of S. aureus and C. albicans infections.

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2016

Dr. Jyotsna Nambiar, Chinchu Bose, Meera Venugopal, Dr. Asoke Banerji, T. B. Patel, Dr. Geetha Kumar, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Anacardic acid inhibits gelatinases through the regulation of Spry2, MMP-14, EMMPRIN and RECK”, Experimental Cell Research, vol. 349, pp. 139-151, 2016.[Abstract]


Earlier studies from our laboratory have identified Anacardic acid (AA) as a potent inhibitor of gelatinases (MMP-2 and 9), which are over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers (Omanakuttan et al., 2012). Disruption of the finely tuned matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activator/inhibitor balance plays a decisive role in determining the fate of the cell. The present study demonstrates for the first time, that in addition to regulating the expression as well as activity of gelatinases, AA also inhibits the expression of its endogenous activators like MMP-14 and Extracellular Matrix MetalloProteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) and induces the expression of its endogenous inhibitor, REversion-inducing Cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK). In addition to modulating gelatinases, AA also inhibits the expression of various components of the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) pathway like EGF, Protein Kinase B (Akt) and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Furthermore, AA also activates the expression of Sprouty 2 (Spry2), a negative regulator of EGF pathway, and silencing Spry2 results in up-regulation of expression of gelatinases as well as MMP-14. The present study thus elucidates a novel mechanism of action of AA and provides a strong basis for utilizing this molecule as a template for cancer therapeutics.

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PDF iconanacardic-acid-inhibits-gelatinases-through-the-regulation-of-spry-2-mmp-14-emmprin-and-reck-11october2016.pdf

2016

A. Omanakuttan, Chinchu Bose, N., P., G. B. Kumar, A. Banerji, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Nitric Oxide and ERK mediates regulation of cellular processes by Ecdysterone”, Experimental Cell Research, vol. 346, no. 2, pp. 167-175, 2016.[Abstract]


The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells. However, in the wound healing process, Ecdysterone has only been shown to enhance granulation tissue formation in rabbits. There have been no studies to date, which elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the complex cellular process involved in wound healing. The present study, demonstrates a novel interaction between the phytosteroid Ecdysterone and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent manner, thereby promoting cell proliferation, cell spreading and cell migration. These observations were further supported by the 4-amino-5-methylamino- 2′, 7′ -difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF FM) fluorescence assay which indicated that Ecdysterone activates NOS resulting in increased Nitric Oxide (NO) production. Additionally, studies with inhibitors of both the EGFR and ERK, demonstrated that Ecdysterone activates NOS through modulation of EGFR and ERK. These results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that Ecdysterone enhances Nitric Oxide production and modulates complex cellular processes by activating ERK1/2 through the EGF pathway. © 2016

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PDF iconnitric-oxideand-erk-mediates-regulation-of-cellular-processes-by-ecdystrone-18july2016.pdf

2016

Sweatha V. Nair, Baranwal, G., Chatterjee, M., Sachu, A., Dr. Anil Kumar V., Chinchu Bose, Dr. Asoke Banerji, and Dr. Raja Biswas, “Antimicrobial Activity of Plumbagin, a Naturally Occurring Naphthoquinone from Plumbago Rosea, against Staphylococcus Aureus and Candida Albicans”, International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 306, pp. 237-248, 2016.[Abstract]


Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens. Despite causing a number of independent infections, both pathogens can co-infect to cause urinary tract infections, skin infections, biofilm associated infections, sepsis and pneumonia. Infections of these two pathogens especially their biofilm associated infections are often difficult to treat using currently available anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents. In order to identify a common anti-microbial agent which could confer a broad range of protection against their infections, we screened several phytochemicals and identified plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a phytochemical from Plumbago species as a potent antimicrobial agent against S. aureus and C. albicans, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 5 μg/ml. Antimicrobial activity of plumbagin was validated using an ex-vivo porcine skin model. For better understanding of the antimicrobial activity of plumbagin, a Drosophila melanogaster infection model was used, where D. melanogaster was infected using S. aureus and C. albicans, or with both organisms. The fly's survival rate was dramatically increased when infected flies were treated using plumbagin. Further, plumbagin was effective in preventing and dispersing catheter associated biofilms formed by these pathogens. The overall results of this work provides evidence that plumbagin, possesses an excellent antimicrobial activity which should be explored further for the treatment of S. aureus and C. albicans infections.

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2016

S. Muzaffar, Chinchu Bose, Dr. Asoke Banerji, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and B. B. Chattoo, “Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae”, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 323-335, 2016.[Abstract]


<p>Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg</p>

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PDF iconanacardic-acid-induces-apoptosis-cell-death-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae-3august2015.pdf

2014

S. Chittiyath Madhavan, Chinchu Bose, Mathew, T. Perakathus, and Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Indian medicinal plant, Coscinium fenestratum-A new bio source for the multifunctional bio active molecule–ecdysterone”, International Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 9-12, 2014.[Abstract]


Phytochemical investigation on Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Collebr, an important Ayurvedic plant, revealed the presence of significant amounts of ecdysterone in the stem (0.22%) and leaves (0.12%), in addition to berberine. Ecdysterone was characterized using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS). Isolation of this multi- functional bioactive compound will throw light on the chemical basis for the various pharmacological effects of Coscinium plant extract.

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2013

A. Khan, Manna, K., Chinchu Bose, Sinha, M., Das, D. Kr., Kesh, S. Bandhu, Chakrabarty, A., Dr. Asoke Banerji, and Dey, S., “Gossypetin, a Naturally Occurring Hexahydroxy Flavone, Ameliorates Gamma Radiation-Mediated DNA Damage”, International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 89, pp. 965-975, 2013.[Abstract]


<p>AbstractPurpose: To evaluate the protective effect of gossypetin (GTIN) against gamma (γ)-radiation-mediated DNA damage.Materials and methods: Increasing concentrations (10–150 μM) of GTIN were incubated with supercoiled DNA 1 h prior exposure to γ-radiation in the range of 5-Gy absorbed dose from Co60 γ source. To establish the effective protective concentration of GTIN, supercoiled DNA was pre-incubated with 50 μM of GTIN for 1 h followed by exposure of 5, 10 and 20 Gy doses of γ-radiation. Moreover, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, metal chelating activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of GTIN were measured and compared with standards. The flowcytometric analysis and radiation-induced genomic DNA damage by comet assay were employed to estimate the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) using isolated murine hepatocytes.Results: GTIN was able to effectively scavenge different free radicals in in vitro situations. It could significantly prevent radiation induced supercoiled and genomic DNA damage with reduced comet parameters. It also acted as a potent scavenger of the radiation induced ROS.Conclusions: GTIN ameliorated radiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage by its free-radical scavenging activity.</p>

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2012

A. Omanakuttan, Dr. Jyotsna Nambiar, Rodney M. Harris, Chinchu Bose, Pandurangan Nanjan, Rebu K. Varghese, Geetha B. Kumar, John A. Tainer, Dr. Asoke Banerji, J. Jefferson P. Perry, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Anacardic Acid Inhibits the Catalytic Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9”, Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 614-622, 2012.[Abstract]


Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide variety of pathophysiological conditions. To further define the mechanism of CNSL action, we investigated the effect of cashew nut shell extract (CNSE) on two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2/gelatinase A and MMP-9/gelatinase B, which are known to have critical roles in several disease states. We observed that the major constituent of CNSE, anacardic acid, markedly inhibited the gelatinase activity of 3T3-L1 cells. Our gelatin zymography studies on these two secreted gelatinases, present in the conditioned media from 3T3-L1 cells, established that anacardic acid directly inhibited the catalytic activities of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our docking studies suggested that anacardic acid binds into the MMP-2/9 active site, with the carboxylate group of anacardic acid chelating the catalytic zinc ion and forming a hydrogen bond to a key catalytic glutamate side chain and the C15 aliphatic group being accommodated within the relatively large S1′ pocket of these gelatinases. In agreement with the docking results, our fluorescence-based studies on the recombinant MMP-2 catalytic core domain demonstrated that anacardic acid directly inhibits substrate peptide cleavage in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50&nbsp;of 11.11 μM. In addition, our gelatinase zymography and fluorescence data confirmed that the cardol-cardanol mixture, salicylic acid, and aspirin, all of which lack key functional groups present in anacardic acid, are much weaker MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitors. Our results provide the first evidence for inhibition of gelatinase catalytic activity by anacardic acid, providing a novel template for drug discovery and a molecular mechanism potentially involved in CNSL therapeutic action.

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2011

Pandurangan Nanjan, Chinchu Bose, and A. Banerji, “Synthesis and Antioxygenic Activities of Seabuckthorn Flavone-3-ols and Analogs”, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 21, pp. 5328 - 5330, 2011.[Abstract]


A practical synthesis of polyhydroxy- and regiospecifically methylated flavone-3-ols which are components of commercial ‘seabuckthorn flavone’ has been achieved by modified Algar–Flynn–Oyamada method. Antioxidant activities of seabuckthorn extracts, isolated products and a number of flavone-3-ols have been determined. Structure–activity relationships have been discussed. Amongst the compounds tested, gallic acid, which is also present in seabuckthorn, was found to be the most effective antioxidant and radioprotectant.

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Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Title

2015

Damu Sunilkumar, Chinchu Bose, Sanu K Shaji, Dr. Asoke Banerji, Geetha B. Kumar, and Dr. Bipin G. Nair, “Cocos Nucifera Shell Extract Down Regulates MMP-2, MMP-9 and Cell Migration in A375 Cells (Poster)”, The XXXIX All India Cell Biology Conference . 2015.[Abstract]


Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. An essential step in melanoma cell migration, invasion, and metastasis is the degradation of basement membranes and extracellular matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors play a crucial role in these complex multistep processes. We investigated the effect of extract from coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell on human melanoma cell line A375. The coconut shell extract was fractionated and the bioactivity screening was carried out. The ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) extract, which was identified as being most potent was further purified to yield two main subfractions (F1 and F2). Comparative studies with gelatin zymography demonstrated that the ‘F1’ significantly down regulated the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Similarly ,the gene expression studies with ‘F1’ showed down regulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and COX-2 all of which play key roles in metastasis, angiogenesis and tumor promoting inflammation. Further, studies confirmed that ‘F1’ inhibited migration and caused arrest at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Susequently, the structural characterization by LC-MS/MS and NMR studies determined the active fraction, ‘F1’to be oxyresveratrol, a stilbenoid. Thus, we report for the first time the isolation and characterization of the compound, oxyresveratrol from coconut shell and also show its regulation of MMPs in human melanoma which suggests its therapeutic potential in cancer.

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2012

Pandurangan Nanjan, Chinchu Bose, and Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Synthesis and Antioxigenic Activities of Seabuckthorn and analogs flavones-3- ols”, National seminar on M odern trends in organic chemistry. Dept of Chemistry, Baselius College, Kottayam , 2012.

2011

Chinchu Bose and A. Banerji, “Comparitive Study Of Chemical Components Of HippophaeRhamnoides And H.Salicifolia”, National symposium on Innovative and modern technologies for agricultural productivity, food security and environmental management . The society for applied biotechnology, Mangalore, Karnataka. , 2011.

2011

S. C.M., Chinchu Bose, Pandurangan Nanjan, P., T. Mathew, and A. Banerji, “Bioprospection of Kerala flora for Phytoecdysoids : Value addition to biodiversity”, National symposium on Innovative and modern technologies for agricultural productivity, food security and environmental management . The society for applied biotechnology, Mangalore, Karnataka, 2011.

2011

Chinchu Bose, Pandurangan Nanjan, and A. Banerji, “Isolation, Characterization and synthesis of Bioactive flavanols from seabuckthorn”, Poster presentation Medicinal chemistry in India. Med chem. Congress. NIPER/IICT,Hyderabad, India, 2011.

2010

O. A, Chinchu Bose, A, B., and B, N., “Phytoecdysterone Mediated Potentiation of Wound Healing in Vitro: Possible Role for Nitric Oxide”, 79th SBCI meeting. IISc, Bangalore, 2010.

2007

Dr. Asoke Banerji, Sumitra, T. V., and Chinchu Bose, “Polar Constituents of Himalayan (Ladakh) Seabuckthorn leaves”, Proceedings of the 3rd International Seabuckthorn Association Conference, Ed. D. B. McKenzie. Laval University, Quebeck, Canada, p. 119, 2007.

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Title

2014

Pandurangan Nanjan, Chinchu Bose, Singh, V., and Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Isolation, Characterization and Chemical Fingerprinting of Bioactives from Indian Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) Species”, in Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) : A Multipurpose Wonder Plant : Vol. IV: Emerging Trends in Research and Technologies, vol. 4, 2014, p. 262.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Title

2013

C. M. Sreejit, Kuthannur, S., Chinchu Bose, P, T. Mathew, and Banerji, A., “Application Of Indigenous Growth Regulators In Sericulture - A Field Study In Palakkad District, Kerala”, in International Conference on Biotechnology for Innovative Applications.Elsevier, 2013.

2013

Chinchu Bose and Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Bioactive Compounds from Underutilized Plants and Plant Products”, in International Conference on Biotechnology for Innovative Applications.Elsevier, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kollam, Kerala, India, 2013.

2013

Ajith Madhavan, S, S., Chinchu Bose, and Pandurangan Nanjan, “Screening, Production, Purification and Application of Naringenase Elaborated by Aspergillus Species of Section Nigri”, in International Conference on Biotechnology for Innovative Applications, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kollam, Kerala, 2013.

2013

Pandurangan Nanjan, Walter Schrenk, Chinchu Bose, and Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Isolation, Charecterization Of Bioactives From The Indian Seabuckthorn”, in The Sixth Conference Of International Seabuckthorn Association, Potsdam2013, Germany ISA , 2013.

2013

Pandurangan Nanjan, Chinchu Bose, Walter Schrenk, and Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Value addition to unutilized Indian plants & plant products”, in 14th Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Karachi, 2013.

2011

Chinchu Bose and A. Banerji, “Standardization of Bioactive Constituents of Seabuckthorn Extracts- Comparitive Phytochemical Study of Hippophaerhamnoides, H. Salicifolia and H. Sinensis”, in National conference on Seabuckthorn: Emerging trends in R&D on health protection and environmental conservation. , Himachal Pradesh krishivishvavidyalaya,Palampur, 2011.

2011

N. Pandurangan, Banerji, A., and Chinchu Bose, “Isolation and synthesis of Bioactive Flavonols from Indian Seabuckthorn”, in 5th International Seabucktorn Association Conference, Quinghai, 2011.[Abstract]


Isolation, Characterization and synthesis of bioactive flavanols from seabuckthorn. Poster presentation medicinal chemistry in India.

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2010

Chinchu Bose, Pandurangan Nanjan, and A. Banerji, “Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Constituents of Himalayan (Ladakh) Seabuckthorn”, in National Conference on seabuckthorn : emerging trends in production to consumption, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University Palampur (H.P.). , 2010.

2010

Pandurangan Nanjan, Chinchu Bose, and A. Banerji, “Anti-Oxidants from Common Plants”, in U.G.C. sponsored National seminar on Medicinal plants and Pharmacopia., kollam, 2010.

2010

Chinchu Bose, Pandurangan Nanjan, and A. Banerji, “Finger-Printing Of Secondary Metabolites In Medicinal Plants”, in U.G.C. sponsored National seminar on Medicinal Plants and Pharmacopia, Kollam, 2010.

2009

Chinchu Bose and Dr. Asoke Banerji, “Drug Discovery Through Seabuckthorn Research Invited presentation”, in fourth international Sea-buckthorn association conference (ISA 2009) Seabuckthorn on the way between science and industry interaction, Belokuriha, Russia, 2009.

2009

Chinchu Bose and Banerji, A., “Drug Discovery ThroughSeabuckthorn Research”, in Fourth international Sea-buckthorn association conference (ISA 2009) , Belokuriha, Russia, 2009.

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Title

2008

Dr. Asoke Banerji and Chinchu Bose, “A process for obtaining Phytoecdysteroid rich extract (Filed. Application no. 1441/del/2008)”, 2008.