Tissue-engineered bone regeneration has attracted much attention because of its high clinical demand for restoration of injured tissues. In the present study, we have evaluated the capability of bare (without cells) and tissue-engineered (with osteogenic-induced rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)) bioactive ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and triphasic ceramic-coated hydroxyapatite (HASi) to mediate vascularisation and osteoinduction at an extraskeletal site of rat model. The viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs on the scaffolds were assessed in vitro and thereby established the capability of HASi in providing a better structural habitat than HA. The vascular invasion was relatively low in bare and tissue-engineered HA at 2 and 4 weeks. Interestingly, the implantation site was well vascularised with profuse ingrowth of blood capillaries in HASi groups, with preference for tissue-engineered HASi groups. Similarly, neo-osteogenesis studies were shown only by tissue-engineered HASi groups. The ingrowth of numerous osteoblast-like cells was seen around and within the pores of the material in bare HASi and tissue-engineered HASi groups (very low cellular infiltration in bare HA groups), but there was no osteoid deposition. The positive impact in forming bone in tissue-engineered HASi groups is attributable to the scaffold and to the cells, with the first choice for scaffold because both HA and HASi were engineered simultaneously with the cells from same source and same passage. Thus, highly porous interconnected porous structure and appropriate chemistry provided by HASi in combination with osteogenic-induced MSCs facilitated better vascularisation that lead to neo-osteogenesis.
Dr. Manitha B. Nair, Varma, H. K., Mohanan, P. V., and John, A., “Tissue-engineered triphasic ceramic coated hydroxyapatite induced bone formation and vascularization at an extraskeletal site in a rat model”, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 34, pp. 1721–1731, 2011.