Qualification: 
Ph.D
Email: 
m_sethu@cb.amrita.edu

Prof. M. Sethumadhavan is the Head of TIFAC-Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Cyber Security, an R&D centre at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Coimbatore campus founded in the year 2005. He leads the R&D that focuses on cyber security, Cryptology, Steganography, Secure Coding, Computer Network Security, Digital Forensics etc. A central focus of his work has been to create innovative educational and research programs and develop world-class expertise in Cyber Security as the underlying vision. TIFAC-CORE in Cyber Security at Amrita is a collaborative alliance of academic and industrial partners. Prof. Sethumadhavan is the Principal Investigator for several Cyber Security Research projects funded by organizations such as Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), National Technical Research Organization (NTRO), Department of Science & Technology, Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Govt. of India. Total amount of the project is now more than Rs. Five crores. The TIFAC-CORE in Cyber Security gives significant thrust to the frontier areas of Cyber Security, including technology, practice, management, and policy issues.

Some of his latest research papers in cryptography appeared in journals like Discrete Applied Mathematics, IET Information Security, Journal of Mathematical Cryptology. These are related to Boolean Functions, Authenticated Encryption and Hash functions. He had guided three PhD students in Cryptography. The theses are the following: Design and Analysis of Initialization Vector Dependent Stream Ciphers, On the Complexity Measures of Multisequences and on Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions. Currently he is guiding seven PhD Students

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Journal Article

Ashok Kumar Mohan, Dr. Nirmala Devi M., Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, and R., S., “A Selective Generation of Hybrid Random Numbers via Android Smart Phones”, International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 118, 2018.[Abstract]


The True Random Number Generator (TRNG) is an important module for countless cryptographically secure appliances. TRNG generation technique requires custom made hardware with quantum phenomena, which on the whole are expensive research components. A secure and sound TRNG design is anticipated at this time, which is based on the permutation of sensor feeds and combination of noise patterns from the peripherals of any Android smartphone. The source for this generator is the selected features from the in-built hardware components namely accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, WiFi signal measure, cell tower information, GPS coordinates and battery thermal noise. Additionally, Process ID (PID) of the corresponding Android processes is given as key vector to augment the entropy and also addresses some of the security concern like confidentiality, integrity and availability of the authentic sources. . Hardware-Based Random Number Generator (HRNG) can be achieved by combing the source of the user, their corresponding parameters and the measure of imperfection. More »»

2017

Journal Article

P. P. Amritha, Ravi, R. P., and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Active steganalysis on svd-based embedding algorithm”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 515, pp. 777-785, 2017.[Abstract]


Steganography is an art of hiding of secret information in an innocuous medium like an image. Most of the current steganographic algorithms hide data in the spatial or transform domain. In this paper, we perform attacks on three singular value decomposition-based spatial steganographic algorithms, by applying image processing operations. By performing these attacks, we were able to destroy the stego content while maintaining the perceptual quality of the source image. Experimental results showed that stego content can be suppressed at least by 40%. PSNR value was found to be above 30 dB and SSIM obtained was 0.61. Markov feature and BER are used to calculate the percentage of stego removed. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017.

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2017

Journal Article

Ashok Kumar Mohan, Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, and A, A. Devi, “Wireless Security Auditing: Attack Vectors and Mitigation Strategies”, Procedia Computer Science, vol. 115, pp. 674–682, 2017.[Abstract]


Wireless security is concise on protecting the resources connected to the wireless network from unauthorized access. Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) is a predominant variety of cryptography based wireless security protocol, which is crafted to be robust and can prevent all the wireless attacks. But numerous organizations explicitly like educational institutions remains vulnerable due to lack of security. By auditing the vulnerabilities and performing the penetration testing, it is possible to review the causes of the issues indicted over the network. Wireless security auditing is anticipated to be an exact blend of attack scenario and the well matched audit policy checklist provides a benchmark for a sheltered wireless network in safe hands.

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2016

Journal Article

Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, ,, Megha, P., Dr. Sindhu M., and Dr. Srinivasan C., “Hash-One: a lightweight cryptographic hash function”, IET Information Security, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 225-231(6), 2016.[Abstract]


The increased demand for lightweight applications has triggered the need for appropriate security mechanisms in them. Lightweight cryptographic hash functions are among the major responses toward such a requirement. The authors thus have a handful of such hash functions such as QUARK, PHOTON, SPONGENT and GLUON introduced already. The cryptanalysis of these hash functions is crucial in analysing their strength and often calls for improvement in designs. Their performance, are also to be taken care of, in terms of both software and hardware implementations. Here, they propose a lightweight hash function with reduced complexity in terms of hardware implementation, capable of achieving standard security. It uses sponge construction with permutation function involving the update of two non-linear feedback shift registers. Thus, in terms of sponge capacity it provides at least 80 bit security against generic attacks which is acceptable currently. More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Srinivasan C., Pillai, U. U., K.V., L., and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Cube Attack on Stream Ciphers using a Modified Linearity Test”, Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, vol. 18, pp. 301-311, 2015.[Abstract]


Abstract: There have been various attempts to attack reduced variants of Trivium stream cipher using cube attack. During the preprocessing phase of cube attack, we need to test the linearity of a superpoly. The linearity testing problem is to check whether a function is close to linear by asking oracle queries to the function. This is the BLR linearity test for Boolean functions, which has a time complexity of O(22k + c) cipher operations, where k is the length of the key and c is the size of the cube. In this paper we present a method which is supposed to be a sufficient condition for testing a superpoly for linearity in F<inf>2</inf> with a time complexity O(2c + 1 (k2 + k)). Our analysis on Trivium cipher reduced to 576 rounds using cube attack gives 69 extremely sparse linearly independent linear equations for smaller cubes, which recovers 69 bits of the key and reduces the attack complexity in the online phase to 211. © 2015, Taru Publications.

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2014

Journal Article

M. Sindhu and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “On the k-error Joint Linear Complexity and Error Multisequence over F”, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 420 CCIS, pp. 512-519, 2014.[Abstract]


Finding fast and efficient algorithms for computing the k-error joint linear complexity and error multisequence of multisequences is of great importance in cryptography, mainly for the security analysis of word based stream ciphers. There is no efficient algorithm for finding the error multisequence of a prime power periodic multisequence. In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm for finding the k-error joint linear complexity together with an error multisequence of m fold prime power periodic multisequences over F q, where char F q = p, a prime. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

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2014

Journal Article

L. K.V., Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, and Cusick, T. W., “Counting rotation symmetric functions using Polya’s theorem”, Discrete Applied Mathematics, vol. 169, pp. 162 - 167, 2014.[Abstract]


Homogeneous rotation symmetric (invariant under cyclic permutation of the variables) Boolean functions have been extensively studied in recent years due to their applications in cryptography. In this paper we give an explicit formula for the number of homogeneous rotation symmetric functions over the finite field G F ( p m ) using Polya’s enumeration theorem, which completely solves the open problem proposed by Yuan Li in 2008 . This result simplifies the proof and the nonexplicit counting formula given by Shaojing Fu et al. over the field G F ( p ) . This paper also gives an explicit count for n -variable balanced rotation symmetric Boolean functions with n = p q , where p and q are distinct primes. Previous work only gave an explicit count for the case where n is prime and lower bounds for the case where n is a prime power.

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2014

Journal Article

K. Nimmy and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Biometric Authentication via Facial Recognition”, 2014.[Abstract]


Security has become a vital need throughout the globe. An underdeveloped country Pakistan wants a reliable security system to prevent from the increasing threats of terrorism. A tool of artificial intelligence-biometric authentication can be a solution for such a problem. By implementing authentication system based on facial recognition in highly crucial areas of the country, the terror attacks can be controlled notably. Supervised learning can support this methodology. In this paper we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a feature descriptor and for dimension reduction, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) as a main classification technique for the facial identification. The results of this combination applied on MIT face database are reported. We got up to 98.66% accuracy in detection rate using this combination. More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Sindhu M. and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Linear Complexity Measures of Binary Multisequences”, International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 62, 2013.[Abstract]


The joint linear complexity and k - error joint linear complexity of an m fold 2n periodic multisequence can be efficiently computed using Modified Games Chan algorithm and Extended Stamp Martin Algorithm respectively. In this paper we derived an algorithm for finding the joint linear complexity of n 3.2 periodic binary multisequence with the help of Modified Games Chan algorithm. Here we derived the minimum value of k for which k-error joint linear complexity is strictly less than the joint linear complexity of binary m fold multisequences of period 2n and an algorithm which, given a constant c and an m fold 2n periodic binary multisequence S, computes the minimum number k of errors and the associated error multisequence needed over a period of S for bringing the joint linear complexity of S below c . More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Srinivasan C., K.V., L., and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Measuring diffusion in stream ciphers using statistical testing methods”, Defence Science Journal, vol. 62, pp. 6-10, 2012.[Abstract]


Confusion and diffusion suggested by Claude Shannon are two techniques that symmetric key ciphers should satisfy to prevent cryptanalysis. Diffusion dissipates the statistical properties of the plaintext over the whole ciphertext. For a block cipher, each bit of the output ciphertext block changes with probability one half for any flipped bit in the input plaintext block, implying the cipher to have good diffusion properties. This definition with slight modification can also be applied to stream ciphers but here it is enough to make sure the following: (i) to ensure an overall change in the output keystream with probability half for any flipped bit in the key-IV bit sequence, and (ii) to verify that every bit in the output keystream changes with probability one half for any single bit flip in the key-IV bit sequence. Here we insist on using these tests together for measuring diffusion in stream ciphers. Based on this we have examined the level of diffusion exhibited by some of the eSTREAM candidates and the result is given in this paper. © 2012, DESIDOC.

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2011

Journal Article

Dr. Sindhu M. and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Error Linear Complexity Measures of Binary Multisequences”, 2011.[Abstract]


The joint linear complexity and k-error joint linear complexity of an m-fold 2n periodic multisequence can be efficiently computed using Modified Games Chan algorithm and Extended Stamp Martin Algorithm respectively. In this chapter the authors derive an algorithm which, given a constant c and an m–fold 2n periodic binary multisequence S, computes the minimum number k of errors and the associated error multisequence needed over a period of S for bringing the joint linear complexity of S below c. They derived another algorithm for finding the joint linear complexity of 3.2v periodic binary multisequence.

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2010

Journal Article

Dr. Gireesh K. T., Poornaselvan, K. J., and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Fuzzy Support Vector Machine-based Multi-agent Optimal Path Planning Approach to Robotics Environment.”, Defence Science Journal, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 387-391, 2010.[Abstract]


A mobile robot to navigate purposefully from a start location to a target location, needs three basic requirements: sensing, learning, and reasoning. In the existing system, the mobile robot navigates in a known environment on a predefined path. However, the pervasive presence of uncertainty in sensing and learning, makes the choice of a suitable tool of reasoning and decision-making that can deal with incomplete information, vital to ensure a robust control system. This problem can be overcome by the proposed navigation method using fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM). It proposes a fuzzy logic-based support vector machine (SVM) approach to secure a collision-free path avoiding multiple dynamic obstacles. The navigator consists of an FSVM-based collision avoidance. The decisions are taken at each step for the mobile robot to attain the goal position without collision. Fuzzy-SVM rule bases are built, which require simple evaluation data rather than thousands of input-output training data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a series of simulations and implemented with a microcontroller for navigation. More »»

2008

Journal Article

Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, Dr. Sindhu M., Dr. Srinivasan C., and Kavitha, C., “An algorithm for k-error joint linear complexity of binary multisequences”, Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, vol. 11, pp. 297-304, 2008.[Abstract]


Abstract Our aim is to find some of the analogues of results related to k-error linear complexity of single sequences to the case of multisequences over GF(2). This paper presents algorithms for finding the joint linear complexity and the k-error joint linear complexity of m-fold binary multisequences of period 2 n . More »»

2006

Journal Article

Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, C. Lakxmie, Y., and Vijayagovindan, C., “A construction of p-ary balanced sequence with large k-error linear complexity”, Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, vol. 9, pp. 253-261, 2006.[Abstract]


Abstract In this paper we derive a result on the k-error linear complexity of balanced p-ary sequences of period N=p n . Using this result, we also describe a construction of a sequence having large linear complexity. These results are of relevance in the construction of key sequences for stream ciphers. More »»

2006

Journal Article

Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Sequences; Predictability and Linear Complexity Measures”, Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, p. 104, 2006.

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2016

Book Chapter

P. P. Amritha, M. Muraleedharan, S., Rajeev, K., and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Steganalysis of LSB Using Energy Function”, in Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications: Volume 1, S. Berretti, M. Thampi, S., and Srivastava, R. Praveen Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 549–558.[Abstract]


This paper introduces an approach to estimate energy of pixel associated with its neighbors. We define an energy function of a pixel which replaces the pixel value by mean or median value of its neighborhood. The correlations inherent in a cover signal can be used for steganalysis, i.e, detection of presence of hidden data. Because of the interpixel dependencies exhibited by natural images this function was able to differentiate between cover and stego image. Energy function was modeled using Gibbs distribution even though pixels in an image have the property of Markov Random Field. Our method is trained to specific embedding techniques and has been tested on different textured images and is shown to provide satisfactory result in classifying cover and stego using energy distribution. More »»

2016

Book Chapter

K. Praveen and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Ideal Contrast Visual Cryptography for General Access Structures with AND Operation”, in Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics: ICACNI 2015, Volume 2, A. Nagar, Mohapatra, P. Durga, and Chaki, N. New Delhi: Springer India, 2016, pp. 309–314.[Abstract]


In Visual Cryptographic Scheme (VCS) reversing operations (NOT operations) are carried out during reconstruction process to improve the quality of the reconstructed secret image. Many studies were reported on using reversing operation in both perfect and nonperfect black VCS. In 2005, Cimato et al. put forward an ideal contrast VCS with reversing, which is applicable to any access structures (IC-GA-VCS). Here there will not be any change in resolution for reconstructed secret image in comparison with original secret image (KI). In this paper a proposal for replacing reversing operations with AND operations during reconstruction in perfect black VCS is shown. A comparison of the proposed modification with Cimato et al. construction and other related work are discussed in this paper. More »»

2014

Book Chapter

K. Praveen and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Results on (2, n) Visual Cryptographic Scheme”, in Security in Computing and Communications: Second International Symposium, SSCC 2014, Delhi, India, September 24-27, 2014. Proceedings, J. Lloret Mauri, Thampi, S. M., Rawat, D. B., and Jin, D. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014, pp. 335–340.[Abstract]


In the literature a lot of studies were carried out on (2, n) visual cryptographic scheme (VCS) using either XOR or OR operation. A scheme on ideal contrast (2, nVCS with reversing using combined OR and NOT operations was reported. In this paper, a construction on an ideal contrast (2, nVCSusing combined XOR and OR operations with less amount of transparencies than ideal contrast (2,nVCS with reversing using OR and NOT operations is proposed. This paper also shows a construction of (2, nVCS with pixel expansion one which perfectly reconstruct the white pixels and probabilistically reconstruct the black pixel using XOR operation.

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2014

Book Chapter

K. Praveen and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “A Probabilistic Essential Visual Cryptographic Scheme for Plural Secret Images”, in Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics- Volume 2: Wireless Networks and Security Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics (ICACNI-2014), M. Kumar Kundu, Mohapatra, P. Durga, Konar, A., and Chakraborty, A. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 225–231.[Abstract]


In order to reduce the pixel expansion of visual cryptography scheme (VCS), many probabilistic schemes were proposed. Let P = {P 1,P 2,P 3,...,P n } be the set of participants. The minimal qualified set for essential VCS is given by Γ0={AA ⊆ PP 1 ∈ A and |A| = k}. In this paper we propose a construction of probabilistic essential VCS for sharing plural secret images simultaneously.

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2010

Book Chapter

Dr. Srinivasan C., K.V., L., and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Complexity Measures of Cryptographically Secure Boolean Functions”, in Cyber Security, Cyber Crime and Cyber Forensics: Applications and Perspectives, IGI Global, 2010.[Abstract]


Boolean functions are used in modern cryptosystems for providing confusion and diffusion. To achieve required security by resistance to various attacks such as
algebraic attacks, correlation attacks, linear, differential attacks, several criteria for Boolean functions have been established over years by cryptographic community. These criteria include non linearity, avalanche criterion and correlation immunity and the like. The chapter is an attempt to present state of the art on properties of such Boolean functions and to suggest several directions for further research.

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Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2016

Conference Proceedings

K. Praveen and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Ideal Contrast Visual Cryptography for General Access Structures with AND Operation.”, In Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics: ICACNI 2015, vol. 2, 44 vol. Springer India, New Delhi, 2016.[Abstract]


In Visual Cryptographic Scheme (VCS) reversing operations (NOT operations) are carried out during reconstruction process to improve the quality of the reconstructed secret image. Many studies were reported on using reversing operation in both perfect and nonperfect black VCS. In 2005, Cimato et al. put forward an ideal contrast VCS with reversing, which is applicable to any access structures (IC-GA-VCS). Here there will not be any change in resolution for reconstructed secret image in comparison with original secret image (KI). In this paper a proposal for replacing reversing operations with AND operations during reconstruction in perfect black VCS is shown. A comparison of the proposed modification with Cimato et al. construction and other related work are discussed in this paper.

More »»

2014

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Sindhu M. and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “On the k-error Joint Linear Complexity and Error Multisequence over F q (char F q= p, prime)”, In Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 512-519, 2014.

2014

Conference Proceedings

K. Praveen, Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, and Rajeev, K., “On the Extensions of (k, n)*-Visual Cryptographic Schemes”, In Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 231-238, 2014.

2014

Conference Proceedings

V. Aravind and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “A Framework for Analysing the Security of Chrome Extensions”, In Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics, vol. 2. Springer International Publishing, pp. 267-272, 2014.

2013

Conference Proceedings

K. Praveen and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “An Application of Vector Decomposition problem in Public key Cryptography using homomarphic Encryption”, International Conference on Emerging Research in Computing Information Communication and Applications. Meenakshi Institute of Technology, Bangalore, 2013.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2014

Conference Paper

K. Nimmy and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Novel mutual authentication protocol for cloud computing using secret sharing and steganography”, in 5th International Conference on the Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies, ICADIWT 2014, Chennai, 2014, pp. 101-106.[Abstract]


Proper authentication is an essential technology for cloud-computing environments in which connections to external environments are common and risks are high. Here, a new scheme is proposed for mutual authentication where the user and cloud server can authenticate one another. The protocol is designed in such a way that it uses steganography as an additional encryption scheme. The scheme achieves authentication using secret sharing. Secret sharing allows a part of the secret to be kept in both sides which when combined becomes the complete secret. The secret contains information about both parties involved. Further, out of band authentication has been used which provides additional security. The proposed protocol provides mutual authentication and session key establishment between the users and the cloud server. Also, the users have been given the flexibility to change the password. Furthermore, strong security features makes the protocol well suited for the cloud environment. © 2014 IEEE.

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2012

Conference Paper

H. Va Nath, Gangadharan, Kb, and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “Reconciliation engine and metric for network vulnerability assessment”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Kerala, 2012, pp. 9-21.[Abstract]


Vulnerability reconciliation is the process that analyses the output produced by one or more vulnerability scanners and provides a more succinct and high-level view of vulnerabilities and its overall impact factor in the network. Here attack graphs method is used for predicting the various ways of penetrating a network to reach its critical assets. In particular, automated analysis of network configuration and attacker exploits provides an attack graph showing all possible paths to critical assets. The aim is to implement Reconciliation engine for identifying the various critical vulnerabilities and a metric system for identifying the overall impact of the vulnerabilities in that network. The reconciliation process is done by analysing the results obtained from different vulnerability scanners and combining them. As part of this, vulnerability tools from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), Government off-the-shelf (GOTS), and research laboratory were selected. The automatic extraction of vulnerability information for attack graph prediction is analysed. Vulnerability information describes what is required for a vulnerability to be exploited and what are the after effects of that exploitation. A data structure is analysed which is able to represent pre and post conditions of each vulnerabilities. The combined risk assessment provides a readily comprehensible picture of the risk posture, assisting the analyst in the definition of an acceptable risk posture for an operational system or preliminary system design. We would be finding a metric value for denoting the overall vulnerability of the network after analysing critical vulnerabilities. Copyright 2012 ACM.

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2012

Conference Paper

I. Praveen and Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, “A More Efficient and Faster Pairing Computation with Cryptographic Security”, in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Security of Internet of Things, New York, NY, USA, 2012, pp. 145-149.[Abstract]


Pairing is one of the main features that elliptic curves possess. Identity Based Encryption (IBE) is one of the most important applications of pairing based cryptography, which is used in low memory devices. Scott improved the speed of pairing computation using non-supersingular curves, which was recommended in IBE scheme. Ionica and Joux extended this method to other classes of curves with small embedding degree and efficiently computable endomorphism. In this paper, we propose this idea can be further extended using another class of elliptic curves, which provides implementation efficiency. More »»

Publication Type: Book

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2011

Book

Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, Santanam, R., and Virendra, M., Cyber Security, Cyber Crime and Cyber Forensics: Applications and Perspectives. IGI Global , 2011.[Abstract]


Recent developments in cyber security, crime, and forensics have attracted researcher and practitioner interests from technological, organizational and policy-making perspectives. Technological advances address challenges in information sharing, surveillance and analysis, but organizational advances are needed to foster collaboration between federal, state and local agencies as well as the private sector. Cyber Security, Cyber Crime and Cyber Forensics: Applications and Perspectives provides broad coverage of technical and socio-economic perspectives for utilizing information and communication technologies and developing practical solutions in cyber security, cyber crime and cyber forensics.

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2006

Book

Dr. M. Sethumadhavan, Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications. Alpha Science Int'l Ltd., 2006.[Abstract]


Discrete Mathematics and its Applications provides an in-depth review of recent applications in the area and points to the directions of research. It deals with a wide range of topics like Cryptology Graph Theory Fuzzy Topology Computer Science Mathematical Biology A resource for researchers to keep track of the latest developments in these topics. Of interest to graph theorists, computer scientists, cryptographers, security specialists. More »»
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