ENVIS Centre

Biological invasions constitute one of the severe environmental concerns of the present times because of their high ecological and economic costs. An alien species referred to as non-indigenous species are introduced by human being, unintentionally or deliberately, outside of their natural geographic range into an area where they are not naturally present. Larger parts of them are unable to endure in an unfamiliar environment without human involvement and eventually vanish. Nevertheless, some species manage to become accustomed to their new surroundings and in due course establish themselves in the wild, where they can cause considerable ecological and economic damage. Invasive alien species are plants, animals, pathogens and other organisms that are non-native to an ecosystem and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health (CBD, 2009). International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defines Alien Invasive Species as an alien species, which becomes established in natural or semi natural ecosystems or habitat, an agent of change, and threatens native biological diversity. Species that grow and reproduce quickly, and spread aggressively, with potential to cause harm, are given the label “invasive.”Invasive species are generally spread by human activities without any intention. Majority of the invasive species are alien but sometimes, indigenous species may also become invasive, usually under tainted environmental conditions such as grazing, cyclones, changes in nutrient regimes, colonisation by an invasive species, or other alterations.

The movement of people, trade, agriculture, tourism, as well as globalization facilitated the deliberate and unintentional movement of species around the world beyond their natural borders. On a global scale, the potential damage by invasive alien species to native species and ecosystems may be as severe as the impact due to habitat loss and degradation. Invasive alien species are considered as the second most common cause of recent and ongoing extinctions after habitat destruction and one of the main drivers of global biodiversity loss. They can also cause severe economic losses, risks to animal, plant and human health and create societal and cultural impacts. Invasive species cause harm to wildlife in many ways. When a new and aggressive species introduced into an ecosystem, it may not have any natural predators or controls. It can breed and spread quickly, taking over an area. Invasive species can also alter the abundance or diversity of species that are important habitat for native wildlife. Additionally, some invasive species are capable of changing the conditions in an ecosystem, such as changing soil chemistry or the intensity of wildfires. Invasive alien species cause species extinction, especially on islands and in freshwater habitats. In freshwater habitats, the introduction of alien species is the second leading cause of species extinction, and on islands it is the main cause of extinction over the years, along with habitat destruction.Invasive species are found in every type of habitat and are typically difficult to eradicate. Invasive species can cause harm by out-competing native species, or preying on them. They can sometimes increase fire risks or contribute to erosion.


Impact of Alien Invasive Species on Native Biodiversity

Alien Invasive species have been identified as the second greatest threat to biodiversity after habitat loss. A species is labeled ‘invasive’ when it can grow and reproduce rapidly, and spread aggressively, with the potential to cause harm.   Alien invasive species are either accidentally or deliberately introduced into an ecosystem that is remote to them. The species could be any living organism from bacteria and fungi to plants, insects, marine life, amphibians, mammals and so on.  The exotic species are introduced to a new location without any environmental checks and balances such as seasonal weather, diseases, or insect pests that kept them under control in their native range. This mechanism is used to support food security, recreation opportunities, and ecosystem rehabilitation.

The newly introduced plant species invade the natural areas and often threaten the local native communities and reduce the native species diversity by forming dense monocultures or altering ecosystem functioning (Daehler, 1998; Khuroo et al., 2007). In the case of native wildlife, the species may lack evolutionary defenses against the invading species, or be unable to compete with a species that has no existing predators. Invasive alien species can alter the habitat structure and disturbance regimes thus lowering the water tables, and increasing soil salinity levels.

Aquatic invasive plants affects the navigation and flood control, disrupt the recreational water usage, and drastically reduce dissolved oxygen levels leading to the extinction of aquatic animals and eventually become a breeding ground for mosquitoes. A case in point was the introduction of Cane toads in Australia to control the native cane beetles, which was harming sugar cane crops. The toads failed in controlling the cane beetles, but moreover reproduced rapidly and spread across Australia. The Cane toads produce toxic secretions that harm the native predators making it difficult to eradicate the toads.

Key Impacts of Alien Invasive species on a Native Biodiversity

1. Habitat modification: Lantana has invaded most of India’s pasture lands (13.2 million hectares) besides forest and fallow areas, and the cost of controlling the situation is estimated to be US$ 70 per ha (Negi et al. 2019). At present, most of the natural forests in India are invaded by lantana resulting in the decline of the diversity and abundance of native species.

2. Predation: Guam, an island in the Pacific Ocean, is facing bird endangerment largely due to the brown tree snakes, an invasive species. The brown tree snake was introduced to the island and subsequently wiped out three-quarters of the native bird species and two of the eleven native lizard species. These snakes were also introduced to other Pacific islands and had similar impacts due to their preying on eggs, young and adult birds, and reptiles. 

3. Competition for resources: Invasive species can compete with natives for food and space. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have spread throughout the Great Lakes region drastically since the 1980s. Mussels require the hard substrate to live on, and the foreign zebra mussels occupy space that is vital for the native mussels causing the latter to perish in the process.

4. Hybridization: North American mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been introduced in many places around the world where they mate with other ducks Endemic ducks in Florida, Hawaii, New Zealand, and Africa is in danger of extinction because of the hybridization by the North American mallard.

5. Pathogens: Invasive species are plausible pathogens. A popular example is the chestnut blight, a fungus that wiped out all the chestnut trees in the eastern US during1940s. Chestnut trees, which were dominant throughout the eastern US, were replaced by oak trees. The effect of this change in dominant species was not fully studied at the time, but scientists posit that several species of moths went extinct when the chestnut tree hosts perished.

Invasive alien species adversely impact the native biodiversity in several ways and various efforts have been made to control or eradicate them. These efforts include manual removal, pesticides, and biological controls. The eradication program that should be implemented depends on the strategy of particular invasive taxa.

References

  • Daehler C.C. (1998). The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: Ecological insights and comparison to agricultural weeds. Biological Conservation, 84:167-180.
  • Khuroo A.A., Rashid I.,Reshi Z., Dar G.H. and WafaiB.A. (2007). The alien flora of KashmirHimalaya. Biological Invasions, 9: 269-292.
  • Negi, G.C.S., Sharma, S., Vishvakarma, S.C. et al. (2019) Ecology and Use of Lantana Camara in IndiaBot. Rev. 85: 109–130. 
  • Threats to Biodiversity: Invasive Species

Invasion of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) and Its Management Strategies in Kerala

Invasive Alien Species

Species that introduced to a new environment other than its natural environment and if this species becomes problematic, it is termed an invasive alien species. It can be an animal or plant from another area of the world that do not belong in their new environment. The major pathways of introduction are by ship ballast water, accidental release, and most often, by people. Invasive species can lead to the extinction of native plants and animals, destroy biodiversity, and permanently alter habitats (NOAA, 2017). Invasive alien species are one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity, agriculture, livelihoods, human, animal health, and forestry (Pimentel, 2011). They can disturb not only the environment or ecology, but also the local economy (Simberloff, 2003). Hence, identifying the probable future distribution of invasive alien species is of paramount importance of early detection, prioritization of regions for conservation and effective management of invasive species (Bellard, 2013).

The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica)

The largest mollusk of the terrestrial ecosystem, the giant African snail (Achatina fulica) is a Gastropod species. The adult snails grow up to 20cm in length and 250g in weight. It is a rapid-growing polyphagous plant pest that has been introduced from its native range in East Africa to many parts of the world as a commercial food source (for humans, fish and livestock) and as a novelty pet (Kotangale, 2011). It is capable of easily attaching itself to any mode of transport or machinery at any developmental stage, and is able to go into a state of aestivation in cooler conditions. Hence it is readily transportable over distances. Once this species escapes from its captivity, it is able to establish and reproduce prodigiously in tropical and temperate locations. As a result, A. fulica has been classified as one of the world's top 100 invasive alien species by The World Conservation Union, IUCN (ISSG, 2003) and is also recognized as the second worst invasive alien species in the world by the global invasive species database (Lowe et al., 2000).

The giant African snail (up to 17 cm shell length) is a pest that has an extensive negative impact on agriculture and can serve as vector for several parasites, including Angiostrongylus cantonensis, a nematode parasite that causes (human) eosinophilic meningitis, an emergent disease (Prociv, 2000). Apart from economic loss and human health issues, A. fulica, is also a general nuisance to people.

Giant African Snail in Kerala

The giant African snail was introduced into India in 1847 at Calcutta, from Mauritius  by W.H. Benson, a malacologist (Srivastava,1992). Later on several incidents of introduction occurred in different areas by the way of trade and transport, intentionally and unintentionally, as pets, for commercial use, research purpose, and as a part of fantasy (Robinson, 1999). This snail was introduced to Kerala, in 1955 for research purposes.

An infestation of snails in the state was initially reported from Palakkad in the 1970s. From 2014 onwards, heavy infestation of Giant African snail was reported from various parts of  Kerala during the Monsoon season. The recent studies stated that it has invaded all districts in the state, except Idukki (KSDMA, 2016). The presence of fewer predators, hermaphroditic nature, high reproductive rate, skill for hibernation, and generalist feeding nature makes them an invasive species (Thiengo et al, 2008) in Kerala. Giant African snail is known to attack more than 500 plant species, including vegetables, coconut, cocoa, papaya, banana, areca nut, coffee, and even rubber plants. The two key negative impacts caused by A.fulica in Kerala are the agricultural damage and the subsequent cost of controlling the snails.

Management of Achatina fulica

The management options are usually seen as mechanical, chemical, and biological control, in addition to ecosystem management. Physical control is dependent on the collection and demolition of snail and their eggs from the infested sites (Raut and Barker, 2002).

Chemical management of the snails includes the application of different chemicals to terminate the organism. Application of sodium chloride, arsenate-metaldehyde bait, Snail Kill (metaldehyde), and cypermethrin, copper sulphate was effective against A. fulica (Rao and Singh, 2002). The usage of plant-derived molluscicides like Cedrus deodara oil, Allium sativum bulb powder, and Nerium Indicum bark in snail control prove to be very effective (Rao and Singh, 2002). In addition, Tobacco Decoction – Copper Sulphate mixture (TDCS) is an effective removal method against A. fulica.

Biological control of A.fulica using its natural predators will affect the endemic snail population, and thus this method was not suitable in Kerala. Besides its natural predators Sus scrofa, Rattus rattus, Bandicota indica, Herpestes edwardsii, and Suncus murinus are the main local predators that help us to eradicate giant African snail.

References

  • Cowie RH, Robinson DG. Pathways of Introduction of Non indigenous Land and Freshwater Snails and Slugs. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2003.
  • Davis MA. Invasion Biology. 2009. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  • Kerala State Disaster Management Authority. Kerala State Disaster Management Plan 2016.
  • Kotangale JP. Giant African snail (Achatina fulica Bowdich). JEnviron Sci Eng 2011;53:6.
  • Lowe S, Browne SM, Boudjrlas S, De Poorter M. 100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species: A selection from the global invasive species database. The Invasive Species Specialists Group of the Species Survival Commission of the World Conservation Union. First published in Aliens 12, December 2000. Reprinted November 2004. Auckland: Hollands Printing, 2000.
  • Pimentel D, Lach L, Zungia R, Morrison D. Environmental and economic costs associated with alien invasive species in the United States. In: Pimentel D, editor. Biological invasions: Economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species. Florida: CRC Press, 2011.
  • Prociv P, Spratt DM, Carlisle MS. (2000) Neuro-angiostrongyliasis: unresolved issues. Int J Parasitol.2000; 30: 1295–1303
  • Simberloff D, Martin JL, Genovesi P, Maris V, Wardle DA, Aronson J, et al. Impacts of biological invasions:what’s what and the way forward. Trends Ecol Evol. 2003; 28: 58–66.
  • Thiengo SC, Fernandez MA, Torres EJ, et al. First record of anematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil. J Invertebr Pathol 2008; 98:6.
  • What is an Invasive Species?

Invasive Animal Species in India and Their Management

Desert locust
Schistocerca gregaria

  • Most dangerous agricultural pests
  • Locusts are insects belongs to grasshoppers family
  • Life span is 90 days
  • Locusts entered in India from Iran & Pakistan following the Monsoon winds (2020)
  • Single swarm of locusts can finish food for around 35,000 people per day
  • Fields of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh were affected 
  • Can be killed using chemicals in small doses (SOP, Indian FAO) 

Mozambique tilapia
Oreochromis mossambicus

  • It is native to Africa and Middle East
  • It is listed in the Global Invasive Species Database and being in the top 100 invasive alien species. 
  • O.mossambicus was introduced to India from Srilanka in 1952
  • Their invasion causing serious threat in view of sustainability of indigenous fish diversity 
  • The management methods are physical, chemical and biological control, genetic engineering, environmental management and cultural control

     

Spiralling white fly
Aleurodicus dispersus

  • The native range of A. dispersus is Central America and the Caribbean
  • The invasive spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus Russel invaded India in 1995
  • They have causing direct losses in agriculture, horticulture and forestry
  • Main Impacts:  Economic loss and health hazard and Range extension







     

Giant African Snail
Achatina fulica

  • Native range is East Africa
  • It can grow up to 20cm in length and 250g in weight
  • The giant African Snail was introduced to Calcutta, India from Mauritius in 1847 by W. H. Benson, a malacologist
  • It is a pest that has extensive negative impact on agriculture and can serve as vector for several parasites
  • The management strategies of A. fulica includes cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical methods

African Catfish
Clarias gariepinus

  • The distribution of African catfish ranges from the Gariep (Orange) River in South Africa
  • Clarias gariepinus was brought to India from neighboring Bangladesh
  • The species has been widely distributed for aquaculture
  • Main Impacts: Rapid Multiplication and Spread in different ecosystems, Biodiversity loss, Economic loss and health hazard and Range extension


     

Coconut eriophyid mite
Aceria guerreronis

  • It was first reported from coconuts of Guerrero State of Mexico
  • In India, it was first noted from Srivilliputhur area of Tamil Nadu in 1984
  • The economic loss due to the coconut mite in India has been reported as 34% on an average 
  • Main impacts: Economic loss and Health hazard and Range extension



     
Sl. No. Title Digital Object Identifier
Invasive Alien Mollusca in India
1 Identifying knowledge gaps in the research and management of invasive species in India Click Here to View
2 Survey and incidence of giant African snail, AchatinafulicaFerussac in selected districts of Karnataka, India. Click Here to View
3 Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (AchatinafulicaFérussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India Click Here to View
4 Public Engagement tools ininvasive species management Click Here to View
5 Invasion of Giant African Alien Land Snail Lissachatinafulica (Férussac, 1821) in Sagar Island of India Click Here to View
6 Severe occurrence of the giant African snail, Achatinafulica (Bowdich) (Stylommatophora: Achatinidae) in Kolar District, Karnataka Click Here to View
7 Management of the giant African snail, Achatinafulica (Bowdich) (Stylommatophora: Achatinidae) in India Click Here to View
8 Seasonal variability of rainfall recorded in growth bands of the Giant African Land Snail Lissachatinafulica (Bowdich) from India Click Here to View
9 Eco-friendly way to keep away pestiferous Giant African snail, AchatinafulicaBowdich from nursery beds Click Here to View
10 Mapping the potential distribution of Achatinafulica (Bowdich) (Stylommatophora: Achatinidae) in India using CLIMEX, a bioclimatic software Click Here to View
11 Management of the giant African snail. Click Here to View
12 Save your crops from giant African snail. Click Here to View
13 Extreme Monsoon Rainfall Signatures Preserved in the Invasive Terrestrial Gastropod Lissachatinafulica Click Here to View
14 Using public surveys to reliably and rapidly estimate the distributions of multiple invasive species on the Andaman archipelago Click Here to View
15 Seasonal behaviour of giant African snail Achatinafulica in Bihar. Click Here to View
16 Studies on food preference and biology of giant African snail, Achatinafulica in Bihar. Click Here to View
17 Record of giant African snail, AchatinafulicaBowdich on coffee in Visakha agency areas, Andhra Pradesh. Click Here to View
18 Entomofauna associated with the giant African land snail,Achatinafulica (Bowdich) Click Here to View
19 Giant African snail meat as dietary animal proteinsource for common carp (Cyprinuscarpio var.communis Linn.) Click Here to View
20 Pestiferous land snails of India. Click Here to View
21 Managing invasive alien mollusc species in rice Click Here to View
22 Occurrence of opisthobranchmolluscUmbraculumumbraculum in Tuticorin coast, Southeast coast of India Click Here to View
23 Life table estimates of the invasive snail PhysaacutaDraparnaud, 1805, occurring in India Click Here to View
24 Abundance and body size of the invasive snailPhysaacuta occurring in Burdwan, West Bengal,India Click Here to View
25 Life History Features of the Invasive Snail Physaacuta Occurring in Kolkata, India Click Here to View
Invasive Alien birds
1 Temporal and spatial assemblages of invasive birds occupying the urban landscape and its gradient in a southern city of India Click Here to View
2 Introduced birds of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India Click Here to View
3 Habitat-wise distribution of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Delhi, India Click Here to View
Invasive Alien Mammals
4 Satellite images indicate vegetation degradation due to invasive herbivores in the Andaman Islands. Click Here to View
5 The effect of introduced herbivores on vegetation in the Andaman Islands Click Here to View
Sl. No. Title Digital Object Identifier
1 Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (AchatinafulicaFérussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India Click Here to View
2 Management of the giant African snail, Achatinafulica(Bowdich) (Stylommatophoa : Achatinidae) in India Click Here to View
3 Present status of the Giant African land snail AchatinafulicaBowdich in Kolkata (Calcutta), India Click Here to View
4 Consequences of Aestivation in the Giant African Land Snail AchatinafulicaBowdich (Gastropoda: Achatinidae) Click Here to View
5 Mapping the potential distribution of Achatinafulica (Bowdich) (Stylommatophora: Achatinidae) in India using CLIMEX, a bioclimatic software Click Here to View
6 The Role of Amoebocytes in Endotoxin-Mediated Coagulation in the Innate Immunity of Achatinafulica Snails Click Here to View
7 Effect of single and binary combinations of plant‐derived molluscicides on different enzyme activities in the nervous tissue of Achatinafulica Click Here to View
8 Seasonal behaviour of giant African snail Achatinafulica in Bihar. Click Here to View
9 Impact of individual's size on the density of the giant land snail pest AchatinafulicaBowdich (Gastropoda: Achatinidae). Click Here to View
10 Factors inducing aestivation of the giant African land snail AchatinafulicaBowdich (Gastropoda: Achatinidae) Click Here to View
11 Short Note Evaluation of Different Poison Baits for the Management of Giant African Snail, AchatinafulicaBowdich Click Here to View
12 Severe occurrence of the giant African snail, Achatinafulica (Bowdich)  (Stylommatophora : Achatinidae) in Kolar District,  Karnataka Click Here to View
13 Seasonal variability of rainfall recorded in growth bands of the Giant African Land Snail Lissachatinafulica (Bowdich) from India Click Here to View
14 Eco-friendly way to keep away pestiferous Giant African snail, AchatinafulicaBowdich from nursery beds Click Here to View
15 The specificity of the binding site of AchatininH, a sialic acid-binding lectin from Achatinafulica Click Here to View
16 Evaluation of haplotype diversity of Achatinafulica (Lissachatina) [Bowdich] from Indian sub-continent by means of 16S rDNA sequence and its phylogenetic relationships with other global populations Click Here to View
17 A single step purification of a sialic acid binding lectin (AchatininH) from Achatinafulica snail Click Here to View
18 C-reactive protein in the hemolymph of Achatinafulica: interrelationship with sex steroids and metallothionein Click Here to View
19 Phenoloxidase activity of reproductive gland and its role in stabilization of egg envelopes of Achatinafulica (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) Click Here to View  
20 Chemical-modification studies of a unique sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail Achatinafulica. Involvement of tryptophan and histidine residues in biological activity Click Here to View
21 A galactose specific agglutinin from the hemolymph of the snail Achatinafulica: Purification and characterization Click Here to View
22 C-reactive protein (CRP) in haemolymph of a mollusc, AchatinafulicaBowdich. Click Here to View
23 A new cold agglutinin from Achatinafulica snails Click Here to View
24 Isolation of a phosphoryl choline-binding protein from the hemolymph of the snail, Achatinafulica Click Here to View
25 Bacterial diversity in different regions of gastrointestinal tract of Giant African Snail (Achatinafulica) Click Here to View
26 Molecular Phylogenetic Relations of Achatinafulica Based on Partial Sequence of COI Gene Click Here to View
27 Population dynamics of the pestiferous snail Achatinafulica(Gastropoda: Achatinidae). Click Here to View
28 Albumen gland of the snail Achatinafulica is the site for synthesis of AchatininH, a sialic acid binding lectin Click Here to View
29 Record of gut associated nemathelminth in the giant African snail Achatinafulica (Bowdich) from Bangalore, India Click Here to View
30 Molluscicidal activity of synthetic derivatives of acrylic acid on adult terrestrial snail Achatinafulica (bowdich) from Nashik district (M.S.) India Click Here to View
Sl. No. Title Digital Object Identifier IAS
1 Invasion of the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromismossambicus (Pisces: Cichlidae; Peters, 1852) in theYamuna river, Uttar Pradesh, India Click Here to View Oreochromismossambicus
2 Exotic fish species in a global biodiversity hotspot: observations from River Chalakudy, part of Western Ghats, Kerala, India Click Here to View Oreochromismossambicus
3 Present status of the Giant African land snail AchatinafulicaBowdich in Kolkata (Calcutta), India Click Here to View  
4 Bio-invasion of exotic fish tilapia (Oreochromismossambicus P. 1852) in Lake Jaisamand, India Click Here to View Oreochromismossambicus
5 Fishery of Mozambique Tilapia OreochromisMossambicus (Peters) in Poringalkuthu Reservoir of Chalakudy River, Kerala, India Click Here to View  
6 Impact study of the feral population of Tilapia(Oreochromismossambicus) on growth of Indian MajorCarp in Veeranna tank of Tatikonda Village inMahabubnagar District, Telangana, India Click Here to View Oreochromismossambicus
7 Assessment of age and growth of exotic fish tilapia (Oreochromismossambicus P.) in Lake Jaisamand, India. Click Here to View  
8 Deep Sequencing Reveals Highly Variable Gut Microbial Composition of Invasive Fish Mossambicus Tilapia (Oreochromismossambicus) Collected from Two Different Habitats Click Here to View Oreochromismossambicus
9 Exotic Fish Biodiversity in Churni River of West Bengal, India Click Here to View  
10 Exotic fish species in aquaculture and aquaticEcosystem in Telangana state, India Click Here to View Oreochromismossambicus
11 Invasion, Biology and impact of feral population of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusLinnaeus, 1757) in the Ganga River (India). Click Here to View  
12 Occurrence of ornamental fishes: a looming danger for Inland fish diversity of India Click Here to View Oreochromismossambicus
13 Problems with the Management of the Golden Apple Snail Pomaceacanaliculata: an Important Exotic Pest of Rice in Asia Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
14 Pilaampullacea and Pomaceacanaliculata, as new paratenic hosts of Gnathostomaspinigerum Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
15 Life table estimates of the invasive snail PhysaacutaDraparnaud, 1805, occurring in India Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
16 New approaches to the management of golden apple snail, Pomaceacanaliculata (Lamarck): An invasive alien pest species of rice Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
17 The golden apple snail Pomaceacanaliculata: A review on invasion, dispersion and control Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
18 Pedal surface collecting as an alternative feeding mechanism of the invasive apple snail Pomaceacanaliculata (Caenogastropoda:Ampullariidae) Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
19 The golden apple snail: raiders of the rice fields Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
20 Ritual Releasing of Wild Animals Threatens Island Ecology Click Here to View Pomaceacanaliculata
21 Golden Apple Snails in the World:Introduction, Impact, and ControlMeasures Click Here to View  
22 Invasion of giant African alien land snail Lissachatinafulica (Férussac, 1821) in Sagar Island of India Click Here to View Lissachatinafulica
23 Management of khapra beetle, TrogodermagranariumEverts on wheat Click Here to View Trogodermagranarium
24 Protecting Dried Fruits and Vegetables AgainstInsect Pests Invasions During Drying and Storage Click Here to View Trogodermagranarium
25 Report of redeared slider turtle (Trachemysscriptaelegans) from a wetland near Kolkata, West Bengal, India Click Here to View Trachemysscriptaelegans
26 First report on presence and status of introduced invasive species Red-eared Slider, Trachemysscriptaelegans in Goa, India Click Here to View Trachemysscriptaelegans
27 Impact of Exotic Pests on Agro-biodiversity and their Management: AReview Click Here to View Trachemysscriptaelegans
28 Non-Native Chelonians In The National Zoological Collections Of Zoological Survey Of India Click Here to View Trachemysscriptaelegans
29 Status of Ganges Soft-shell Turtle Nilssoniagangeticaamidst DeplorableScenarios In Urban Wetlands of Central Gujarat State, India Click Here to View Trachemysscriptaelegans
30 Ritual Releasing of Wild Animals Threatens Island Ecology Click Here to View Trachemysscriptaelegans
Sl No Title Digital Object Identifier
Invasive animals in the Islands of India
1 Impacts ofInvasive Alien Specieson Island Ecosystems of Indiawith special reference toAndaman Group of Islands Click Here to View
2 Introduced birds of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India Click Here to View.
3 Invasive alien species on islands: impacts, distribution, interactions and management Click Here to View
4 The Andamans’ New Colonisers Click Here to View
5 Invasion of Snowflake Coral, Carijoariisei (Duchassaing and Michelotti, 1860), in Indian Seas: Threats to Coral Reef Ecosystem Click Here to View
6 Invasive alien faunal species in India Click Here to View
7 Need to strengthen quarantine between Andaman and Nicobar Islands and mainland India Click Here to View
8 Native Species Displacement by Invasive Alien Species Yellow Crazy Ant: Anoplolepisgracilipes (Smith 1857) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Click Here to View
9 Using public surveys to reliably and rapidly estimate the distributions of multiple invasive species on the Andaman archipelago Click Here to View
10 Diversity, Distribution and Conservation of Freshwater Fishes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands Click Here to View
11 Amphibians of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands:distribution, natural history,and notes on taxonomy Click Here to View
12 Recent introduction and spreadof Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachustigerinus (Daudin, 1802)into the Andaman Islands Click Here to View
13 What’s for dinner? Diet and potential trophic impact of an invasive anuran Hoplobatrachustigerinus on the Andaman archipelago Click Here to View
14 Niche dissociated assembly drives insular lizard community organization Click Here to View
15 Herpetofauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands Click Here to View
16 Bird community response to Tsunami-affectedwetlands of South Andaman Island, India Click Here to View
17 Avifaunal records from ChalisEk, North Andaman Island: insights into distribution of some Andaman Island birds Click Here to View
18 Impact of invasive spotted deer (Axis axis) on tropical island lizard communities in the Andaman archipelago Click Here to View
19 The effect of introduced herbivores on vegetation in the Andaman Islands Click Here to View
20 Impact assessment revisited: improving the theoretical basis for management of invasive alien species   Click Here to View
21 Fortuitous introduction of an aphelinid parasitoid of the spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicusdispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) into the Lakshadweep Islands with notes on host plants and other natural enemies. Click Here to View
22 Strategic plan and management of alien Invasive fauna in the Andaman and Nicobar islands Click Here to View
23 Problems of Invasive Species: A Case Study from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andaman Sea, India Click Here to View
Sl No Title Digital Object Identifier
Invasive Alien Fishes in India
1 Unregulated aquaculture and invasive alien species: a case study of the African Catfish Clariasgariepinus in Vembanad Lake (Ramsar Wetland), Kerala, India Click Here to View
2 Ecological impacts of exotic fish species in India Click Here to View
3 Length-weight relationship and conditionFactors of the African catfish, Clariasgariepinus(burchell, 1822) in mattupetty reservoir,Southern western Ghats, Kerala, India Click Here to View
4 Impact study of the feral population of Tilapia(Oreochromismossambicus) on growth of Indian MajorCarp in Veeranna tank of Tatikonda Village inMahabubnagar District, Telangana, India Click Here to View
5 Exotic fish species in aquaculture and aquaticEcosystem in Telangana state, India Click Here to View
6 Studies on invasion and impact of feral population ofNile tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) in Krishna River ofMahabubnagar district in Telangana, India Click Here to View
7 Invasive Species in Freshwater Ecosystems – Threats to Ecosystem Services Click Here to View
8 Invasion and impacts of alien fish species in the Ganga River, India Click Here to View
9 Risk and benefit assessment of alien fish species of the aquaculture and aquarium trade into India Click Here to View
10 Emerging Alien Species In Indian Aquaculture:Prospects And Threats Click Here to View
11 An Appraisal of Introduced African Catfish Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822) in India: Invasion and Risks Click Here to View
12 Hazard assessment of metals in invasive fish species of the Yamuna River, India in relation to bioaccumulation factor and exposure concentration for human health implications Click Here to View
13 Impacts of invasive fishes on fishery dynamics of the Yamuna river, India Click Here to View
14 Invasion of an exotic fish—common carp, Cyprinuscarpio l. (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Ganga river, India and its impacts Click Here to View
15 Alien fish species, Cyprinuscarpio (common carp) as a invader in the Vindhyanregion (Ken, Paisuni, Tons rivers), India Click Here to View
16 Exotic Food Fishes In North 24 Parganas District, West Bengal And TheirEcological Assessment Click Here to View
17 The invasive potential of parasitic monogenoids (platyhelminthes) via the aquarium fish trade: an appraisal with special reference to India Click Here to View
18 Study of Controlling methods ofinvasive species in India Click Here to View
19 Assessment of impacts of invasive fishes on the food web structure and ecosystem properties of a tropical reservoir in India Click Here to View
20 Invasion of the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromismossambicus (Pisces: Cichlidae; Peters, 1852) in theYamuna river, Uttar Pradesh, India Click Here to View
21 Fishery Of Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromismossambicus (Peters) In Poringalkuthu Reservoir ofChalakudy River, Kerala, India Click Here to View
22 Bio-invasion of exotic fish tilapia (Oreochromismossambicus P. 1852) in Lake Jaisamand, India Click Here to View
23 Occurrence of ornamental fishes: a looming danger for Inland fish diversity of India Click Here to View
25 Invasive ornamental fish: a potential threat to aquatic biodiversity in peninsular India Click Here to View
26 When pets become pests – exotic aquarium fishes and biological invasions in Kerala, India Click Here to View
27 Record of Oreochromisaureus (Steindachner,1864) Teleostei:Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Natural Waters of TamilNadu, India Click Here to View
28 Fishy Aliens: Invasive Introduced Fishes on the Forts of the NorthernWestern Ghats Click Here to View
29 A report on Pterygoplichthyspardalis Amazon sailfinsuckermouth Catfishes in Freshwater tanks at Telangana state, India Click Here to View
30 Occurrence of a Pterygoplichthysdisjunctivus (Weber,1991) population in Cauvery River System, Tamil Nadu,South India Click Here to View
31 Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermoutharmoured catfish(Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys sp.) from Kerala, India Click Here to View
32 Invasion of South American suckermoutharmoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae) in Kerala, India - a case study Click Here to View
33 Vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthysdisjunctivus (ActinopterygiiSiluriformes:Loricariidae)Invasion, biology, and initial impacts in east Kolkata Wetlands, India Click Here to View
Sl No Title Digital Object Identifier
Management of Invasive Animals in India
1 The management of alien species in India Click Here to View
2 Key Management Issues of Forest - Invasive Species in India Click Here to View
3 Invasive Alien Species: The Indian Scene Click Here to View
4 Invasive alien species and biodiversity in India Click Here to View
5 Strategies for the management of insect invasives Click Here to View
6 Do alien species matter? Impacts of invasions in Indian freshwater systems and challenges in management Click Here to View
7 Risk and benefit assessment of alien fish species of the aquaculture and aquarium trade into India Click Here to View
8 Amazonian invaders in an Asian biodiversity hotspot: Understanding demographics for the management of the armouredsailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthyspardalis in Kerala, India Click Here to View
9 Potential impacts of non‐native fish on the threatened mahseer (Tor) species of the Indian Himalayan biodiversity hot spot Click Here to View
10 Pest Dynamics and Suppression Strategies Click Here to View
11 Emerging Threats on Environmental Sustainability Click Here to View
12 Forest biodiversity and its conservation in India Click Here to View
13 Microbial control of the invasive spiraling whitefly on cassava with entomopathogenic fungi

Click Here to View 

14 Invasive alien species in relation to edges and forest structure intropical rainforest fragments of the Western Ghats Click Here to View
15 Monogenoidea on exotic Indian freshwater fish. 3. Are Indian guidelines for importation of exotic aquarium fish useful and can they be implemented; The case of NeotropicalGusseviaspiralocirra Kohn and Paperna, 1964 Click Here to View
Management of Invasive Alien Animals- Worldwide Scenario
1 Restoring the oceanic island ecosystem: impact and management of invasive alien species in the Bonin Islands   Click Here to View
2 Ecological effects and management of invasive alien Vespidae   Click Here to View
3 Human dimensions in the management of invasive species in New Zealand   Click Here to View
4 Best practices for the prevention and management of invasive alien species   Click Here to View
5 Impact assessment revisited: improving the theoretical basis for management of invasive alien species   Click Here to View
6 Stakeholder engagement in the study and management of invasive alien species   Click Here to View
7 Prevention and management of invasive alien species: Proceedings of a Workshop on Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia, Bangkok, Thailand, 14-16 August 2002.   Click Here to View
8 Human dimensions of invasive alien species in Sri Lanka Click Here to View
9 A conceptual framework for prioritization of invasive alien species for management according to their impact   Click Here to View
10 Empowered communities or “cheap labour”? Engaging volunteers in the rationalised management of invasive alien species in Great Britain   Click Here to View
11 The role of research for integrated management of invasive species, invaded landscapes and communities   Click Here to View
12 Invasive and introduced plants and animals: human perceptions, attitudes and approaches to management   Click Here to View
13 Does public awareness increase support for invasive species management? Promising evidence across taxa and landscape types   Click Here to View
14 Public attitudes to the management of invasive non-native species in Scotland   Click Here to View
15 Biology and management of invasive apple snails.   Click Here to View
16 Spatial Patterns Of Invasive Alien Animals In China And Its Relationship With Environmental And Anthropological Factor   Click Here to View
17 Eradication planning for invasive alien animal species on islands-the approach developed by the New Zealand Department of Conservation Click Here to View

States

Andhra Pradesh

Plants

Impact & Management

Arunachal Pradesh

Ecology& Uses

Assam

Plants

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

Chhattisgarh

Plants

Impact & Management

Gujarat

Impact & Management

Haryana

Plants

Biology

Himachal Pradesh

Plants

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

Jharkhand

Plants

Karnataka

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

Kerala

Plants

Animals

Biology

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

Madhya Pradesh

Plants

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

Maharashtra

Plants

Impact & Management

Manipur

Plants

Odisha

Plants

Impact & Management

Punjab

Biology

Tamil Nadu

Plants

Animals

Biology

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

Telangana

Biology

Tripura

Plants

Impact & Management

Uttarakhand

Plants

Biology

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

Uttar Pradesh

Plants

Ecology& Uses

Impact & Management

West Bengal

Plants

Biology

Ecology& Uses

Union Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Impact & Management

Chandigarh

Impact & Management

Jammu & Kashmir (Srinagar-S*, Jammu-W*)

Plants

Impact & Management

Sl No Title Digital Object Identifier State
1 Hemidactylus flaviviridis Rüppell, 1835 (Sauria: Gekkonidae) an invasive gecko in Assam Click Here to View Assam
2 Hazard assessment of metals in invasive fish species of the Yamuna River, India in relation to bioaccumulation factor and exposure concentration for human health implications Click Here to View Gujarat
3 Resource Use Efficiency and Invasive Potential of Non-Native Fish Species, Oreochromisniloticus from the Paisuni River, India Click Here to View Gujarat
4 Bio-invasion of exotic fish tilapia (Oreochromismossambicus P. 1852) in Lake Jaisamand, India Click Here to View Gujarat
5 Impact study of the feral population of Tilapia (Oreochromismossambicus) on growth of Indian Major Carp in Veeranna tank of Tatikonda Village in Mahabubnagar District, Telangana, India Click Here to View Gujarat
6 Bio-invasion of exotic fish tilapia (Oreochromismossambicus P. 1852) in Lake Jaisamand, India Click Here to View  
7 Genetic differentiation of invasive Aedesalbopictus by RAPD-PCR: implications for effective vector control Click Here to View  
8 Extended distribution of the invasive Sucker catfish Pterygoplichthyspardalis (Pisces: Loricariidae) to Cauvery river system of Peninsular India Click Here to View  
9 Assessment of impacts of invasive fishes on the food web structure and ecosystem properties of a tropical reservoir in India Click Here to View  
10 Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae) in Kerala, India - a case study Click Here to View Kerala
11 Amazonian invaders in an Asian biodiversity hotspot: Understanding demographics for the management of the armoured sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthyspardalis in Kerala, India Click Here to View Kerala
12 Unregulated aquaculture and invasive alien species: a case study of the African Catfish Clariasgariepinus in Vembanad Lake (Ramsar Wetland), Kerala, India Click Here to View Kerala
13 Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae) in Kerala, India - a case study Click Here to View  
14 Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys sp.) from Kerala, India Click Here to View Kerala
15 Insecticide susceptibility status of invasive Aedesalbopictus across dengue endemic districts of Odisha, India Click Here to View Odisha
16 Temporal and spatial assemblages of invasive birds occupying the urban landscape and its gradient in a southern city of India Click Here to View Southern India
17 Invasive ornamental fish: a potential threat to aquatic biodiversity in peninsular India Click Here to View Tamil nadu
18 Invasive ornamental fish: a potential threat to aquatic biodiversity in peninsular India Click Here to View Tamil nadu
19 A review on Impacts of invasive alien species on Indian inland aquatic ecosystems Click Here to View Tamil nadu
20 Fishy Aliens: Invasive Introduced Fishes on the Forts of the Northern Western Ghats Click Here to View Tamil nadu
21 Occurrence of a Pterygoplichthysdisjunctivus (Weber, 1991) population in Cauvery River System, Tamil Nadu, South India Click Here to View Tamil nadu
22 A report on Pterygoplichthyspardalis Amazon sailfinsuckermouth Catfishes in Freshwater tanks at Telangana state, India Click Here to View Telanagana
23 Observations on the use of Gambusiaaffinis Holbrooki to control A. stephensi breeding in wells. Results of two years' study in Greater Hyderabad City-India Click Here to View Telanagana
24 Invasion and impacts of alien fish species in the Ganga River, India Click Here to View UP
25 An Appraisal of Introduced African Catfish Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822) in India: Invasion and Risks Click Here to View UP
26 Emerging Alien Species in Indian Aquaculture: Prospects and Threats Click Here to View UP
27 Nutritional Composition of the Invasive Pterygoplichthys Disjunctivus from East Kolkata Wetland, India Click Here to View West Bengal
28 Occurrence of a Pterygoplichthysdisjunctivus (Weber, 1991) population in Cauvery River System, Tamil Nadu, South India Click Here to View Tamil Nadu
29 A Preliminary Note on Assessment of a Few Indigenous Ornamental Fishes of Northeast India as Potential Predators of Mosquito Larvae Click Here to View  
30 Status of alien fish species in the Western Ghats (India) as revealed from 2000-2004 surveys and literature analysis Click Here to View