COURSE SUMMARY
Course Title: 
Medicinal Chemistry – II Theory
Course Code: 
BP501T
Year Taught: 
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Semester: 
5
Degree: 
Undergraduate (UG)
School: 
School of Pharmacy
Campus: 
Kochi

'Medicinal Chemistry – II Theory' is a course offered in the fifth semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Course Duration: 45 Hours

Scope:

This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure, chemistry and thera- peutic value of drugs. The subject emphasizes on structure activity relationships of drugs, importance of physicochemical properties and metabolism of drugs. The syllabus also emphasizes on chemical synthesis of important drugs under each class.

Objectives:

Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to

  1. Understand the chemistry of drugs with respect to their pharmacological activity
  2. Understand the drug metabolic pathways, adverse effect and therapeutic value of drugs
  3. Know the Structural Activity Relationship of different class of drugs
  4. Study the chemical synthesis of selected drugs

Study of the development of the following classes of drugs, Classification, mechanism of action, uses of drugs mentioned in the course, Structure activity relationship of selective class of drugs as specified in the course and synthesis of drugs superscripted (*)

Unit I (10 Hours)

Antihistaminic agents: Histamine, receptors and their distribution in the humanbody

H1–antagonists: Diphenhydramine hydrochloride*, Dimenhydrinate, Doxylamines cuccinate, Clemastine fumarate, Diphenylphyraline hydrochloride, Tripelenamine hydrochloride, Chlorcyclizine hydrochlo- ride, Meclizine hydrochloride, Buclizine hydrochloride, Chlorpheniramine maleate, Triprolidine hydro- chloride*, Phenidamine tartarate, Promethazine hydrochloride*, Trimeprazine tartrate, Cyproheptadine hydrochloride, Azatidine maleate, Astemizole, Loratadine, Cetirizine, Levocetrazine Cromolyn sodium

H2-antagonists: Cimetidine*, Famotidine, Ranitidin.

Gastric Proton pump inhibitors: Omeprazole, Lansoprazole, Rabeprazole, Pantoprazole

Anti-neoplastic agents:

Alkylating agents: Meclorethamine*, Cyclophosphamide, Melphalan, Chlorambucil, Busulfan, Thiotepa

Antimetabolites: Mercaptopurine*, Thioguanine, Fluorouracil, Floxuridine, Cytarabine, Methotrexate*, Azathioprine

Antibiotics: Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Bleomycin

Plant products: Etoposide, Vinblastin sulphate, Vincristin sulphate Miscellaneous: Cisplatin, Mitotane.

Unit II (10 Hours)

Anti-anginal:

Vasodilators: Amyl nitrite, Nitroglycerin*, Pentaerythritol tetranitrate, Isosorbide dinitrite*, Dipyridamole.

Calcium channel blockers: Verapamil, Bepridil hydrochloride, Diltiazem hydrochloride, Nifedipine, Amlodipine, Felodipine, Nicardipine, Nimodipine.

Diuretics:

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Acetazolamide*, Methazolamide, Dichlorphenamide.

Thiazides: Chlorthiazide*, Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydroflumethiazide, Cyclothiazide, Loop diuretics: Fu- rosemide*, Bumetanide, Ethacrynic acid.

Potassium sparing Diuretics: Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride.

Osmotic Diuretics: Mannitol

Anti-hypertensive Agents: Timolol, Captopril, Lisinopril, Enalapril, Benazepril hydrochloride, Quinapril hydrochloride, Methyldopate hydrochloride,* Clonidine hydrochloride, Guanethidine monosulphate, Guanabenz acetate, Sodium nitroprusside, Diazoxide,Minoxidil, Reserpine, Hydralazine hydrochloride.

Unit III (10 Hours)

Anti-arrhythmic Drugs: Quinidine sulphate, Procainamide hydrochloride, Disopyramide phosphate*, Phenytoin sodium, Lidocaine hydrochloride, Tocainide hydrochloride, Mexiletine hydrochloride, Lorcain- ide hydrochloride, Amiodarone, Sotalol.

Anti-hyperlipidemic agents: Clofibrate, Lovastatin, Cholesteramine and Cholestipol

Coagulant & Anticoagulants: Menadione, Acetomenadione, Warfarin*, Anisindione, clopidogrel

Drugs used in Congestive Heart Failure: Digoxin, Digitoxin, Nesiritide, Bosentan, Tezosentan.

Unit IV (08 Hours)

Drugs acting on Endocrine system

Nomenclature, Stereochemistry and metabolism of steroids

Sex hormones:Testosterone, Nandralone, Progestrones, Oestriol, Oestradiol, Oestrione, Diethyl | stilbestrol.

Drugs for erectile dysfunction: Sildenafil, Tadalafil.

Oral contraceptives:Mifepristone, Norgestril, Levonorgestrol

Corticosteroids: Cortisone, Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone, Betamethasone, Dexamethasone

Thyroid and antithyroid drugs: L-Thyroxine, L-Thyronine, Propylthiouracil, Methimazole.

Unit V (07 Hours)

Antidiabetic agents:

Insulin and its preparations

Sulfonyl ureas:Tolbutamide*, Chlorpropamide, Glipizide, Glimepiride.
Biguanides: Metformin.

Thiazolidinediones: Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone.

Glucosidase inhibitors: Acrabose, Voglibose.

Local Anesthetics: SAR of Local anesthetics

Benzoic Acid derivatives; Cocaine, Hexylcaine, Meprylcaine, Cyclomethycaine, Piperocaine.

Amino Benzoic acid derivatives: Benzocaine*, Butamben, Procaine*, Butacaine, Propoxycaine, Tetra- caine, Benoxinate.

Lidocaine/Anilide derivatives: Lignocaine, Mepivacaine, Prilocaine, Etidocaine.

Miscellaneous: Phenacaine, Diperodon, Dibucaine.*

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

  1. Wilson and Giswold’s Organic medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
  2. Foye’s Principles of Medicinal Chemistry.
  3. Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry, Vol I to IV.
  4. Introduction to principles of drug design- Smith and Williams.
  5. Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences.
  6. Martindale’s extra pharmacopoeia.
  7. Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar, Vol. II.
  8. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis by Lednicer, Vol. 1to 5.
  9. Indian Pharmacopoeia.
  10. Text book of practical organic chemistry- A.I.Vogel.