General geology – Weathering - Geological work of wind, rivers and oceans.Mineralogy. Petrology – Three-fold classification of rocks and their characteristic features. Structural geology - Types and classification of structures (Joints, Unconformities, Folds and faults) and their effect on civil engineering projects. Geology in Civil Engineering - Tunnels, dams, reservoirs, bridges, runways, roads and buildings. Physico-Mechanical properties of rock. Origin and formation of soils.
Soil structure and clay mineralogy – Adsorbed water – Mass-volume relationship – Relative density. Index Properties of Soils: Grain size analysis – Sieve and hydrometer methods – consistency limits and indices – I.S. Classification of soils. Permeability: Soil water – capillary rise – flow of water through soils – Darcy’s law- permeability – Factors affecting permeability – laboratory determination of coefficient of permeability – Permeability of layered systems. Seepage through soils: Total, neutral and effective stresses – quick sand condition – Seepage through soils – Flownets: characteristics and uses.
Stress distribution in soils: Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories for point loads and areas of different shapes – Newmark’s influence chart. Compaction: Mechanism of compaction – factors affecting – effects of compaction on soil properties – Field compaction equipment - compaction control. Consolidation: stress history of clay; e-p and e-log p curves – magnitude and rate of 1-D consolidation – Terzaghi’s Theory.