Introduction, general principles of measurement, classification of instruments, elements of an instrument, direct and inferential measurement; Static and dynamic characteristics of instruments,errors in measurements & error Analysis; Classification of sensors and transducers, amplifier signal conditioner, signal isolation, transmission, display, data acquisitionmodules, interfaces, recording. Control centre, instrumentation diagram.
Temperature measurement: Expansion thermometers - constant-volume gas thermometer, pressure spring thermometer, volumetric and pressure thermometers; Thermoelectric temperature measurement - Thermoelectricity, industrial thermocouples; Resistance thermometers -industrial resistance thermometers, null-bridge resistance thermometers, deflectional resistance thermometers; Radiation temperature measurement - radiation pyrometers, photoelectric pyrometers and opticalpyrometers.
Measurement of pressure and vacuum: Pressure, vacuum and head; liquid column manometers - U-tube type, well type and inclined type, micromanometers; Lowpressure measurement - kenetometer, McLeod gage, thermal conductivity gauge; Barometer method for atmospheric pressure measurement; pressure measurement using bourdon tube, flat and corrugated diaphragms, and capsules; Measurement of pressure in corrosive fluids using liquid seal and diaphragm seal. Hydrostatic type, Elastic Element type, Electrical Type and other type of instruments like Neleod Gauge, Thermocouple gauge, Knudson Gauge, Ionization Gauge.
Flow measurement: Variable area and variable head flow meters, volumetric and mass flow rate meters, linear velocity measurement systems, anemometers; Measurement of Head and Level: Density and specific gravity - constant volume hydrometer, air pressure balance method, gas density detector and gas specific gravity measuring system; Level measurement: pressure type, resistance & capacitance type, sonic & ultrasonic, thermal type level meters, level measurement in open vessels and in pressure vessels, solid level detectors.
Viscometers: Redwood, Saybolt, Engler, Cup and Cone type, Rheo & other types of viscometers; Composition analysis - Gas analysis by thermal conductivity, analysis ofmoisture in gases (humidity), psychrometer method, hygrometer method, dew-point method for moisture analysis in gases, measurement of moisture solids; pH measurement; Gas analysis by thermal conductivity, polarography & chromatography; Composition analysis using spectroscopic methods;On line instrumentation in modern plants.