Statically indeterminate structures - degree of static and kinematic indeterminacies. Introduction to force and displacement methods of analysis. Energy principles – Castigliano’s theorems - Engessor’s theorem - Maxwell Betti’s theorem - Principle of least work – Method of virtual work (unit load method) - applications in statically determinate and indeterminate structures. Analysis of Propped cantilever and fixed beams.
Cables – maximum tension – types of supports – forces in towers – suspension bridges with three and two hinged stiffening girders. Theory of arches – Eddy’s theorem – analysis of three hinged and two hinged arches – settlement and temperature effects. Beams curved in plan – analysis of cantilever beam curved in plan – analysis of circular beams over simple supports.
Moving loads and influence lines – influence lines (IL) for statically determinate beams for reaction, SF and BM – effect of moving loads – concentrated and uniformly distributed loads – load position for maximum BM and SF - equivalent UDL. IL for determinate structures – truss, arch and suspension bridge.