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Course Detail

Course Name Geology and Soil Mechanics
Course Code 15CVL212
Program B. Tech. in Civil Engineering
Semester Four
Year Taught 2019


Unit 1

General geology – Weathering – Geological work of wind, rivers and oceans.Mineralogy. Petrology – Three-fold classification of rocks and their characteristic features. Structural geology – Types and classification of structures (Joints, Unconformities, Folds and faults) and their effect on civil engineering projects. Geology in Civil Engineering – Tunnels, dams, reservoirs, bridges, runways, roads and buildings. Physico-Mechanical properties of rock. Origin and formation of soils.

Unit 2

Soil structure and clay mineralogy – Adsorbed water – Mass-volume relationship – Relative density. Index Properties of Soils: Grain size analysis – Sieve and hydrometer methods – consistency limits and indices – I.S. Classification of soils. Permeability: Soil water – capillary rise – flow of water through soils – Darcy’s law- permeability – Factors affecting permeability – laboratory determination of coefficient of permeability – Permeability of layered systems. Seepage through soils: Total, neutral and effective stresses – quick sand condition – Seepage through soils – Flownets: characteristics and uses.

Unit 3

Stress distribution in soils: Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories for point loads and areas of different shapes – Newmark’s influence chart. Compaction: Mechanism of compaction – factors affecting – effects of compaction on soil properties – Field compaction equipment – compaction control. Consolidation: stress history of clay; e-p and e-log p curves – magnitude and rate of 1-D consolidation – Terzaghi’s Theory.

Text Books

  1. Venkat Reddy, D., “Engineering Geology”, Vikas Publishing House, 2010.
  2. Gopal Ranjan and A. S. R. Rao, “Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics”, New Age International Publishers, 2005.


  • Blyth. F. G. H. and M. H. De Freitas, “Geology for Engineers”, 7th Edition, Elsevier Science, 2006.
  • Parbin Singh., “Engineering and General Geology”, S. K. Kataria and Sons, 2009.
  • Das, B. M., “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”, CL Engineering, 2013.
  • C. Venkataramiah, “Geotechnical Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, 2006.
  • T. W. Lambe and Whitman, “Soil Mechanics”, Wiley, 2008.
  • Manoj Dutta and Gulhati S. K, “Geotechnical Engineering”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishers,2005.

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