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Course Detail

Course Name Ground Improvement Techniques
Course Code 15CVL453
Program B. Tech. in Civil Engineering
Year Taught 2019


Unit 1

Objective of ground improvement – In-situ ground improvement methods – Introduction to soil improvements without the addition of many material – surface compaction – compaction piles in sand – impact compaction / dynamic compaction of sands – vibratory compaction in sand – vibroflotation in sand – explosions in sand – Terra probe method – replacement process – vibroflotation in clays – preloading techniques – sand drains – stone columns – introduction to soil improvement by thermal treatment – introduction to biotechnical stabilization.

Unit 2

Introduction to soil improvement by adding materials – lime stabilization – Mechanism – optimum lime content – lime fixation point – effect of lime on physical and engineering properties of soil – lime column method – stabilization of soft clay or silt with lime – stabilization with cement -suitability for soils – effect on properties of soils. Grouting – types – desirable characteristics of grouts – grouting methods – grouting pressure – grouting materials – grouting technology – permeation grouting – compaction grouting – soil fracture grouting – jet grouting – application and limitations – slab jacking, grouted columns – application to dams.

Unit 3

Soil improvement using reinforcing elements – introduction to reinforced earth – load transfer mechanism and strength development – soil types – reinforcing materials – Reinforced earth retaining walls – reinforced embankments – soil nailing.

Geosynthetics – Types – general applications – types of geotextiles and geo-grids – physical and strength properties of geotextiles and geogrids – behaviour of soils on reinforcing with geotextiles and geogrids – design aspects with geotextiles and geogrid.

Text Books

  1. Purushothama Raj.P., “Ground Improvement Techniques”, University Science Press, 2009.
  2. Swami Saran., “Reinforced soil and its engineering applications”, I. K. International Pvt Ltd, 2010


  • Moseley and Kirsch, “Text Book on Ground Improvement”, Spon Press, 2004.
  • Shashi K. Gulhati and Manoj Dutta, “Geotechnical Engineering”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.
  • Boweven R., “Text Book on Grouting in Engineering Practice”, John Wiley and Sons, 1981.
  • Jewell R. A., “Soil reinforcement with geotextiles – Special Publication 123”, CIRIA Special Publication, Thomas Telford, 1996.
  • Donald H. Gray and Robbin B. Sotir, “Text Book on Biotechnical & Soil Engineering Slope Stabilization”, Wiley International, 1996.
  • Korener, “Construction & Geotechnical Methods in Foundation Engineering”, McGraw Hill, 1986.
  • Nihar Ranjan Patra, “Ground Improvement Techniques”, Vikas Publishing House, 2012.

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