Qualification: 
Ph.D
sabitham@aims.amrita.edu

Dr. Sabitha M. joined Amrita School of Pharmacy in March 2000. She completed her Bachelor's Degree in Pharmacy from St. John's Pharmacy college, Bangalore University and her Master's Degree in Pharmaceutics from the department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Doctor Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, (Formerly known as Saugor University, SAGAR) of Madhya Pradesh which is a pioneer Pharmaceutical institution. She completed her Ph.D in Pharmaceutical Sciences from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University in 2012. Her doctoral dissertation was titled "Chitin Nanogels as an Effective Nanocarrier for the Treatment of Melanoma via the Transdermal Route". She served as the Vice Principal of the School during the period February 2008 - September 2011. She has more than 17 years of teaching and research experience and has several publications in national and international journals.

During July-August 2010, she received one-month advanced training in the practice of clinical pharmacy at the University of Michigan, College of Pharmacy, United States. Dr. Sabitha's current research focuses on nanolipid carrier based brain drug delivery and novel approaches for effective topical delivery. Other areas of interest include development of wound dressings, novel formulation approaches to reinvent drugs of potential therapeutic benefit etc.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2016

T. Sasidharan, .P, S., Dr. Sabitha M., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Chitosan-eudragit Magnetic Microspheres of Sulfasalazine for Colon Drug Delivery”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 125-131, 2016.[Abstract]


The objective of the present study is on the formulation of sulfasalazine loaded magnetic microsphere coated with eudragit L-100 in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and also to evaluate the total amount of magnetite present in microsphere. Sulfasalazine loaded magnetic microsphere was prepared using simple cross linking method. The formulated magnetic microsphere was further evaluated for physiochemical property and was found to be within acceptable level. The magnetite solution was prepared using suitable method sulfasalazine microsphere was loaded with magnetite.. FTIR and DSC were evaluated for drugexcipient interaction, the morphological study was done with Scanning Electron Microscopy and the particles were found to be round, rough and discreet. Micrometric property revealed that all particles have better flow property. In-vitro study was carried out and it was found that the maximum drug release was found for formulation F4 which was 96.45±2.25% in 24hrs. Cell line study concluded that the optimized F4 formulation showed down regulation of COX -2as compared to control and marketed formulation. Stability study proved that F4 formulation was found to be stable for different temperature condition. The optimized formulation F4 showed diffusion controlled sustained drug release mechanism and therefore can have benefits such as reduction in total dose and frequency of administration. In future, magnetic studies and in-vivo studies are essential to prove the site specific delivery and magnetic targeting effect of microsphere.

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2016

Rajitha Panonnummal, Gopinath, D., Dr. Raja Biswas, Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitosan nanoparticles in drug therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases”, Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1177-1194, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Chitosan, a polymer from the chitin family has diverse pharmaceutical and bio-medical utility because of its easy widespread availability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, rich functionalities and high drug-loading capacity. Recent pharmaceutical research has examined the use of chitosan-based systems for drug delivery applications in various diseases. The availability of functional groups permits the conjugation of specific ligands and thus helps to target loaded drugs to the site of infection/inflammation. Slow biodegradation of chitosan permits controlled and sustained release of loaded moieties; reduces the dosing frequency and is useful for improving patient compliance in infectious drug therapy. The muco-adhesion offered by chitosan makes it an attractive candidate for anti-inflammatory drug delivery, where rapid clearance of the active moiety due to the increased tissue permeability is the major problem. The pH-dependent swelling and drug release properties of chitosan present a means of passive targeting of active drug moieties to inflammatory sites. Areas covered: Development of chitosan-based nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery applications is reviewed. The current state of chitosan-based nanosystems; with particular emphasis on drug therapy in inflammatory and infectious diseases is also covered. Expert opinion: The authors believe that chitosan-based nanosystems, due to the special and specific advantages, will have a promising role in the management of infectious and inflammatory diseases. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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2016

V. Dhanalakshmi, Nimal, T. R., Dr. Sabitha M., Dr. Raja Biswas, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Skin and muscle permeating antibacterial nanoparticles for treating Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds”, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials, 2016.[Abstract]


Majority of the chronic wounds are infected with bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The deep tissue infections are difficult to treat using topical antibiotics, due to their poor tissue penetration. In order to treat S. aureus deep tissue infections we have developed an antibiotic delivery system using chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs). To enhance their tissue penetration these CNPs were further coated using lecithin (CLNPs). Antibiotic tigecycline was loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (tCNPs) and then coated with lecithin to generate lecithin coated tigecycline loaded chitosan nanoparticles (tCLNPs). The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using DLS, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The prepared CNPs, tCNPs, CLNPs and tCLNPs have the size range of 85±10, 90±18, 188±5 and 235±20 nm, respectively. The tCLNPs shows more sustained release pattern of tigecycline. The antibacterial activity of the developed nanoparticles was confirmed against laboratory and clinical strains of S. aureus using in vitro and ex vivo experiments. The ex vivo skin and muscle permeation study ensures the enhanced delivery of tigecycline to the deeper tissue. The prepared nanoparticles were hemo-compatible and cyto-compatible. Our study suggests that the prepared tCLNPs can be effectively used for the treatment of S. aureus infected wounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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2015

A. J. Sivaram, Rajitha Panonnummal, Maya, S., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Nanogels for Delivery, Imaging and Therapy”, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 2015.[Abstract]


Nanogels are hydrogels having size in nanoregime, which is composed of cross-linked polymer networks. The advantages of nanogels include stimuli-responsive nature, easy drug loading, and higher drug-loading capacity, physical stability, versatility in design, stability of entrapped drug, and controlled release of the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, protein, peptide and anticancer drugs. Stimuli-responsive nature of nanogel is of particular importance in anticancer and anti-inflammatory drug delivery, as cancer and inflammation are associated with acidic pH, heat generation, and change in ionic content. Nanogels composed of muco-adhesive polymers provide prolonged residence time and increase the ocular availability of loaded drugs. By forming suitably sized complex with proteins or by acting as artificial chaperones, they thus help to keep the proteins and enzymes in proper confirmation necessary for exerting biological activity; nanogels can increase the stability and activity of protein/peptide drugs. Better drug penetrations achieved by prolonged contact with skin contribute much in transdermal drug delivery. When it comes to cancer drug delivery, the presence of multiple interactive functional groups in nanogels different targeting agents can be conjugated for delivery of the selective drugs. This review focuses on applications of nanogels in cancer drug delivery and imaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-psoriatic, transdermal, ocular and protein/peptide drug delivery and therapy.

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2014

T. R. Arunraj, Rejinold, N. S., Mangalathillam, S., Saroj, S., Dr. Raja Biswas, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Curcumin Nanospheres”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 10, pp. 238-250, 2014.[Abstract]


Curcumin is one of the most versatile compounds obtained from Curcuma longa. The major obstacle in the therapeutic use of curcumin is its aqueous solubility. To enhance its aqueous solubility and biological activities, we prepared curcumin nanospheres (CNSs) by wet milling-solvent evaporation technique without any surfactants. In this study, we have focused on the synthesis, characterization and biological effects of CNSs. DLS and SEM analyses showed 50-80 nm spherical shaped CNSs with a zeta potential of -31.65 mV. FTIR revealed that there were no structural changes to CNSs. Antibacterial and antifungal studies proved that CNSs were much more effective than curcumin against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Antioxidant activity of CNSs showed promising result for therapeutic applications. The in vitro anti-inflammatory studies proved that CNSs possessed enhanced anti-inflammatory effect against protein denaturation. Cytotoxicity and uptake of CNSs showed more toxicity on cancer cells (T47D, MG63, A375) sparing normal HDF and IEC cell lines. Skin permeation studies showed CNSs retained at different layers of pig skin. These results give clear evidence for their use against microbial and fungal skin infections as well as cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

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2013

M. Mukesh, M Prathap, M., and Dr. Sabitha M., “Structural model of the alpha phosphoglucomutase: A promising target for the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 107-114, 2013.[Abstract]


Objective: Tb is considered to be growing menaces in various countries especially Africa and South East Asia. In 2011, 8.7 million people fell ill with TB, out of which a total of about 1.4 million people died. The children being affected in large, increases the severity of Tb. It remains to be the leading cause of death of people infected with HIV. The growing multidrug resistant strains of bacteria affecting the population has increase since 2010. The search for potential targets for fighting Tb has identified different pathways for drug development against tuberculosis. One such pathway identified, an enzyme alpha phosphoglucomutase involved in bacterial polysaccharide capsule formation, important for bacterial virulence and infection. The absence of X-ray crystallographic structure of alpha phosphoglucomutase resulted in the modelling of this potential target. Methods: Homology modelling of was performed by modeller9.1, the multiple sequence alignment was carried out selecting three different relevant templates. Model evaluation was performed using Ramachandran plot and ERRAT plot, further RMSD with the template obtained using Pymol. Results: Stereochemical evaluation of protein by Ramachandran plot indicated a good quality model with 99.8% residues in the most favoured and allowed regions. The model was compared with the suitable template by superimposing the structures, RMSD was determined to be 0.202Å, the further analysis by ERRAT program gave a score of 95.733, both indicating a good quality model. Conclusion: The various results obtained, conclude the reliability of modelled protein which can be further used for Denovo design of inhibitors against the target.

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2013

T. R. Anuraj, N Rejinold, S., Biswas, R., Saroj, S., Shantikumar V Nair, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Curcumin Nanospheres by Surfactant Free Wet Milling Method (In Press)”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2013.

2013

Dr. Sabitha M., N. Rejinold, S., Nair, A., Lakshmanan, V. - K., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Development and Evaluation of 5-fluorouracil Loaded Chitin Nanogels for Treatment of Skin Cancer”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 91, pp. 48-51, 2013.[Abstract]


This study focuses on development and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded chitin nanogels (FCNGs). It formed good, stable aqueous dispersion with spherical particles in 120-140 nm size range and showed pH responsive swelling and drug release. The FCNGs showed toxicity on melanoma (A375) in a concentration range of 0.4-2.0 mg/mL, but less toxicity toward human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells by MTT assay. Confocal analysis revealed uptake of FCNGs by both cells. From skin permeation experiments, FCNGs showed almost same steady state flux as that of control 5-FU but the retention in the deeper layers of skin was found to be 4-5 times more from FCNGs. Histopathological evaluation revealed loosening of the horny layer of epidermis by interaction of cationically charged chitin, with no observed signs of inflammation and so FCNGs can be a good option for treatment of skin cancers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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2013

N. Mohammed, N. Rejinold, S., Mangalathillam, S., Dr. Raja Biswas, Nair, S. V., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Fluconazole Loaded Chitin Nanogels as a Topical Ocular Drug Delivery Agent for Corneal Fungal Infections”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 1521-1531, 2013.[Abstract]


Poor bioavailability of antifungal drugs due to the various protective mechanisms of the eye is a serious concern for the treatment of corneal fungal infections in today's world. The use of nanosystems that can improve the bioavailability of these antifungal drugs is relatively a new idea being conceived and here we have synthesized fluconazole loaded chitin nanogels (Flu-CNGs) which can be used for the treatment of corneal fungal infections. These nanogels were characterized using DLS, Zeta potential, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA. The prepared Flu-CNGs have controlled release pattern which is ideal for the continuous availability of fluconazole over a longer period of time for an effective fungal treatment. Flu- CNGs are haemocompatible, cytocompatible and also showed very good cell uptake in human dermal fibroblast cells and penetration to the deeper sections of the porcine cornea with no signs of destruction or inflammation to corneal cells as shown in ex vivo permeation studies. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

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2012

S. Mangalathillam, Rejinold, N. S., Nair, A., Lakshmanan, V. - K., Shantikumar V Nair, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Curcumin Loaded Chitin Nanogels for Skin Cancer Treatment via the Transdermal Route”, Nanoscale, vol. 4, pp. 239-250, 2012.[Abstract]


In this study, curcumin loaded chitin nanogels (CCNGs) were developed using biocompatible and biodegradable chitin with an anticancer curcumin drug. Chitin, as well as curcumin, is insoluble in water. However, the developed CCNGs form a very good and stable dispersion in water. The CCNGs were analyzed by DLS, SEM and FTIR and showed spherical particles in a size range of 70-80 nm. The CCNGs showed higher release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. The cytotoxicity of the nanogels were analyzed on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and A375 (human melanoma) cell lines and the results show that CCNGs have specific toxicity on melanoma in a concentration range of 0.1-1.0 mg mL -1, but less toxicity towards HDF cells. The confocal analysis confirmed the uptake of CCNGs by A375. The apoptotic effect of CCNGs was analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay and the results indicate that CCNGs at the higher concentration of the cytotoxic range showed comparable apoptosis as the control curcumin, in which there was negligible apoptosis induced by the control chitin nanogels. The CCNGs showed a 4-fold increase in steady state transdermal flux of curcumin as compared to that of control curcumin solution. The histopathology studies of the porcine skin samples treated with the prepared materials showed loosening of the horny layer of the epidermis, facilitating penetration with no observed signs of inflammation. These results suggest that the formulated CCNGs offer specific advantage for the treatment of melanoma, the most common and serious type of skin cancer, by effective transdermal penetration.

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2012

S. N. Rejinold, Nair, A., Dr. Sabitha M., Chennazhi, K. P., Tamura, H., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Synthesis, Characterization and in vitro Cytocompatibility Studies of Chitin Nanogels for Biomedical Applications”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 943 - 949, 2012.[Abstract]


Abstract In this work we developed biodegradable chitin nanogels (CNGs) of size 65nm by controlled regeneration method and characterized. The CNGs showed higher swelling and degradation in acidic pH. The in vitro cytocompatibility was analyzed on an array of cell lines and cell uptake studies were done by conjugating CNGs with the rhodamine-123 dye (rhodamine-123–CNGs), which showed retention of nanogels inside the cells. Our preliminary studies reveal that these nanogels could be useful for the delivery of drugs, growth factors for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

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2012

D. Aa Baby, Saroj, Sa, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Mechanism of solubility of liquisolid formulation in non volatile solvent: A review”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 710-715, 2012.[Abstract]


Solubility is one of the important parameter to obtain desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation. Liquisolid technique is one of the most promising techniques to achieve enhanced solubility of poorly soluble drugs. This approach is suitable for immediate or sustained release formulations and this depends upon the solubility of the drug in the non volatile solvents. Non volatile solvents enhance the solubility of water insoluble drugs by formation of micelles and act as dispersants. For immediate release liquisolid compacts, the selection of solvent is based on high drug solubility and for sustained release, solvents with least solubilising capacity is selected. The solubility of drug in non volatile solvents can be revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X- ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Since there are no specific non-volatile liquid vehicles used in the preparation of liquisolid compacts, different non aqueous solvents have been used as non-volatile liquid vehicles in the preparation of immediate release and sustained release liquisolid tablets with different drugs. So selection of non volatile solvent in liquisolid technique is important to obtain immediate or sustained release formulation.

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2012

S. Raj, Jose, S., Sumod, U. S., and Dr. Sabitha M., “Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges”, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 186-193, 2012.[Abstract]


Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

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2012

S. Saroj, Baby, D. A., and Dr. Sabitha M., “Current trends in lipid based delivery systems and its applications in drug delivery”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 5, pp. 4-9, 2012.[Abstract]


Lipid-based delivery systems are an accepted, proven, commercially viable strategy to formulate pharmaceuticals, for topical, oral, pulmonary or parenteral delivery. Lipid based formulations can be tailored to meet a wide range of product requirements dictated by disease indication, route of administration, cost consideration, product stability, toxicity, and efficacy. The proven safety and efficacy of lipid-based carriers make them attractive candidates for the formulation of pharmaceuticals, as well as vaccines, diagnostics and nutraceuticals. These systems allows oral delivery of poorly soluble API when solubilization through modification of molecular scaffold is not an option The efficacy of these biocompatible systems may be improved if their delivery rate, biodegradation, and site-specific targeting can be predicted, monitored, and controlled. However, the number of applications for lipid-based formulations has expanded as the nature & type of active drugs under investigation has become more varied. This article mainly focus on lipid formulations namely microemulsions, self emulsifying delivery systems, nanoemulsions, pickering emulsions, liposomes, phytosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, archaesomes, vesosomes, lipid microparticles and lipid nanoparticles and their prominent applications in pharmaceutical drug delivery. More »»

2009

Dr. Aneesh T. P., M, S. Sekhar, P.O, S., Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, “Radio Frequency Identification: An Effective Tool to Prevent Drug Counterfeiting”, Journal of Pharmacy Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 678 - 679, 2009.

2003

S. K. Jain, Chourasia, M., Dr. Sabitha M., Jain, R., Jain, A. K., Ashawat, M., and Jha, A. K., “Development and Characterization of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Diltiazem Hydrochloride”, Drug delivery, vol. 10, pp. 169-77, 2003.[Abstract]


Transdermal drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed to obtain a prolonged controlled drug delivery. Both the matrix diffusion controlled (MDC) and membrane permeation controlled (MPC) systems were developed. The matrix diffusion controlled systems used various combinations of hydrophilic and lipophillic polymers, whereas membrane permeation controlled systems were developed using the natural polymer chitosan. The MDC systems were prepared using the cast film method and the MPC systems by an adhesive sealing technique. Both the systems were characterized for in vitro and in vivo performance. The MDC systems were characterized for physicochemical properties such as tensile strength, moisture content, and water vapor transmission. The in vitro release studies showed that the release from the matrix diffusion controlled transdermal drug delivery systems follows a nonfickian pattern and that from the membrane permeation controlled transdermal drug delivery systems follow zero-order kinetics. The release from the matrix systems increased on increasing the hydrophilic polymer concentration, but the release from the membrane systems decrease on cross-linking of the rate controlling membrane and also on addition of citric acid to the chitosan drug reservoir gel. The in vivo studies of the selected systems showed that both systems are capable of achieving the effective plasma concentration for a prolonged period of time. The MPC system achieved effective plasma concentration a little more slowly than the MDC system, but it exhibited a more steady state plasma level for 24 hr.

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2003

M. K. Chourasia, Ashawat, M. S., Jain, N., Chalasani, K. B., Jain, R. K., Jain, A. K., Dr. Sabitha M., and S.K., J., “Radiopharmaceuticals: Preparation, evaluation and applications(Review). ”, Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. , vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 439-449., 2003.

2003

S. M. Sonal, Prabhakar, V., Dr. Aneesh T. P., and Dr. Sabitha M., “Nanomedicine: Promise Of The Future In Disease Management”, The Internet Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 2, 2003.

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Title

2011

Dr. Sabitha M., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Shantikumar V Nair, Amrita, N., N Rejinold, S., and Lakshmanan, V. Kumar, “The art, method, manner, process and system of preparation of curcumin loaded chitin nanogels for skin penetration”, U.S. Patent 2353/CHE/2011 A2011.[Abstract]


A method for the preparation of chitin nanogel loaded with curcumin without using any organic solvents or surfactants which show deep skin penetration and increased bioavailability of curcumin at sites of cancer with low pH.

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