Qualification: 
M. Pharm.
Email: 
sreejacnair@aims.amrita.edu

Ms. Sreeja C. Nair joined as Lecturer in Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy in September 2012. She completed her Bachelor’s degree from Cherran’s College of Pharmacy and Master’s degree in Pharmaceutics from Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham. Currently she serves as Assistant Professor. She has over 5 yrs experience in both teaching and industry. Currently, she is guiding B.Pharm and M.Pharm students. Her areas of interest include formulation, development and drug design. She has around 38 international publications to her credit.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2020

M. Murali, Thayyilakandy, S., A., M. Shafi P., Venu, A., Surendran, S. A., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Propranolol Hydrochiloride Topical Gel for the Treatment of Infantile Hemangioma”, International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 143-150, 2020.[Abstract]


Objective: To formulate and evaluate propranolol hydrochloride topical gel for overcoming the limitations and low oral bioavailability associated with conventional therapy.

Methods: The propranolol hydrochloride topical gels were prepared by the cold mechanical method. The preliminary evaluation and further characterisation studies was conducted to find the optimised formulation. The in vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies were investigated. The histopathological studies and stability studies was also assessed.

Results: The propranolol hydrochloride topical gel was successfully prepared. The in vitro release of optimized topical propranolol hydrochloride gel formulation (G2) showed the highest cumulative percentage drug release that is, 95.55%±0.15 after 7.5 h. (G2) the formulation showed a higher flux value of 4.61μg/cm2/h. The histopathological study using pig skin revealed that the optimized formulation was found to be safe for topical application.

Conclusion: The formulated topical gel containing propranolol Hydrochloride seems to be a promising dosage form for enhanced skin delivery of propranolol hydrochloride in treating Infantile Hemangioma.

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2020

Lakshmi V. S., Thayyilakandy, S., Sreekumar, R., Santhosh, S., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Cargo Exosomes a Key Platform in Emerging Nanoscale Drug Delivery System”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 12, 2020.[Abstract]


Extravascular vesicles are agents that are released by various cell types which elicit major role in cell to cell communication. Exosomes are one of the most scuritized extra vascular vesicles to provide delivery of cargo. Exosomes are small vesicles (40 to 100 nm) that are released by different cell types in the body. The heterogeneous protein-lipid composition and physicochemical features of these endogenous vesicles had led to its transformation into a Nano drug delivery device with various therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Structurally exosomes are composed of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other cellular components. Exosomes are produced by two ways that follows Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) dependant and independent mechanism. Release of recipient cells, cell-cell communication and immune response are some of the functions of exosomes. Various techniques are employed to isolate the vesicular system that includes ultracentrifugation, Size-exclusion Chromatography, Pull-down assay and Tangential-flow filtration. It has several therapeutic and diagnostic applications in cancer therapy, nucleic acid delivery, and in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

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2020

Sreeja C. Nair, S., S. A., A., A. Abdul Rahi, Krishnan, K., Gopika G., T., P. Nair, and Ajit, U. Gauri, “Virosomes: A groundbreaking revolution in novel drug delivery”, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 5809-5820. , 2020.[Abstract]


The site-specific action of the drug has been seen from the last eras of the revolution in drug delivery technologies. Drug delivery opportunities by the use of biomimetic nanoparticles like virosomes is a stimulating area of research & development as it demonstrates targeted action by fusion with the target cell. Virosomes are vesicular particles reconstituted from viral envelopes which are non-replicating “artificial viruses” that denotes a unique system for presentation of antigen directly into the host cell. Trials have been created to use them as vaccines or adjuvants moreover as a delivery system for medicine, nucleic acids, or genes. Various attempts have been made to use them as vaccines or adjuvants as well as a delivery system for drugs, nucleic acids, or genes as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic and non-autoimmunogenic. The production of vaccines increasingly moved away from living attenuated or inactivated whole organisms to safely killed organism. A virus that is safely killed can be a promising vector because it does not cause infection, and the viral structure allows the virosome to identify different components of its target cells. Pevion's virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine technology, called virosomes, and its architecture is specifically designed to produce safe and efficient vaccine subunits. Virosome-based vaccination is effective in reliable regulatory and safety records as well as the feasibility of upgrading production and has been approved in more than 40 countries, including infants and older people. The prospect of drug delivery and targeting using virosomes is a vital area of research and development. This review pinpoints the various aspect of virosome and will be a milestone for the researchers in the field of drug delivery.

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2020

S. Kunnath Joseph, Dr. Sabitha M., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanosystem for Colon Specific Drug Delivery”, Adv Pharm Bull, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2020.[Abstract]


An ideal colon specific drug delivery system needs to perform multiple functions like greater bio availability, less toxicity and higher therapeutic efficacy, all of which require high degree of smartness. This article focuses on the overview of the stimuli-responsive polymers and various nanodrug delivery systems which have found applications in colon specific delivery of drugs as this system provide a link between therapeutic need and drug delivery. These polymers exhibit a non-linear response to a small stimulus leading to a macroscopic alteration in their structure/properties. Stimuli responsive polymers display a significant physio chemical change in response to small changes in their environment (temperature, pH, light etc.). Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance in treating diseases like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, colon cancer etc. The expansion in the development of polymers based system with greater flexibility, versatility and unexplored potential enables new opportunities for them in uplifting bio medicine. Applying the concepts of smartness in the context of clinically relevant therapeutic and diagnostic systems, it can prelude in a new era of ‘smart’ therapeutics that can improve the health care fields. In particular, due to its high sensitivity to the stimuli, this system has been identified as a sensible platform for releasing drug at suitable site and at appropriate time.

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2020

Keerthana Raju, P.S, G., Krishnakumar, G., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Vesosomes: New Prospects in Multi Compartment Vesicular Drug Delivery System”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 869-877, 2020.[Abstract]


In the modern era of pharmaceutical research to improve the solubility, drug targeting, bioavailability, various drug delivery systems are discovered. To improve the efficacy and therapeutic activity these systems have advanced from micro to nano scale. Later, a need for multicompartment system arised with liposome encapsulated with drug consisting a bilayer displays high stability and retention is a promising efficient drug carrier. Vesosome is one of the systems that can improve the bioavailability of the drug, duration of action and reduces toxicity. It contain multiple vesicles that can be either multilamellar or unilamellar that are aggregated to each other forms an interior bi layer structure. Vesosomes are sub microscopic in size and dimensions are about 0.5 micron to >5 microns. This review point out various vesicular drug delivery systems and will help researchers in the area of drug delivery.

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2019

L. V. S, Revathy B. Menon, Keerthana Raju, Aiswarya M. U., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Formulation and Evaluation of Lorazepam Encapulated Collagen/Pectin Buccal Patch”, International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, pp. 200-209, 2019.[Abstract]


Objective: To formulate and characterize Lorazepam loaded buccal patches using mucoadhesive, biodegradable, natural polymers-pectin (hydrophilic) and collagen (lipophilic) for treating epileptic seizures. Methods: Lorazepam loaded buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting method and were subjected to various Physico-chemical evaluation parameters to find the optimized buccal patch. The in vitro drug release study and ex vivo permeation study was carried out. The stability study and histopathological study of optimized Lorazepam loaded buccal patch was also carried out. Results: From in vitro drug release study, it was found that Lorazepam loaded buccal patch (B4) exhibited maximum drug release of 96.16 %±0.07 than other formulations at the end of 4 h, indicating an initial burst release followed by sustained release with release kinetics as Higuchi diffusion model. Based on the in vitro drug release, % drug content, % swelling index, folding endurance, B4 formulation was considered as optimised formulation and was further characterized. Ex vivo permeation study revealed that the cumulative amount of drug permeated from optimised Lorazepam loaded buccal patch (B4) was higher (3831.4±0.21µg/cm2) than marketed Midazolam buccal solution (1724±0.12 µg/cm2) and control drug solution (895.42±0.07 µg/cm2) with an enhancement ratio of 4.8. B4 formulation also showed a higher flux value (12.52±0.02µg/cm2/hr) compared to marketed formulation (5.732±0.01 µg/cm2) and control drug solution (2.563±0.03 µg/cm2) of P<0.05. The histopathological study using bovine buccal mucosa revealed that the B4 formulation is safe for buccal application. The stability study confirmed that B4 formulation is stable in both room and refrigeration conditions. Hence the formulated Lorazepam loaded buccal patch seems to be a promising carrier for the enhanced buccal delivery of Lorazepam in treating epileptic seizures. Conclusion: The formulated Lorazepam loaded collagen/pectin buccal patch was found to be an efficient and stable route for the buccal delivery of Lorazepam in treating acute epileptic seizures which could be further explored scientifically.

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2019

M. A. Arya, Maneesha Kalappurackal, Dr. Sabitha M., Krishnakumar N. Menon, and Sreeja C. Nair, “Nanotechnology Approaches for Enhanced CNS Delivery in Treating Alzheimer's Disease”, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, vol. 51, pp. 297 - 309, 2019.[Abstract]


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the overproduction of amyloid beta proteins and its inability to clear from the brain resulting in its self-aggregation to form toxic oligomers, fibrils and plaques. Studies show that the incidence of AD would double in every 2 decade showing an increase from 66 million to 115 million by 2050. Currently therapies address systemic administration for treating Alzheimer's disease by appropriate manipulations in neutrophins, the neutrophic enhancing factors. In addition, therapeutic strategies using cholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockage, or by drugs that remove amyloid plaques frombrain. Fluid biomarkers improve diagnostic accuracy in predementia phase as drugs would be effective only in initial stages. However, a major challenge in the CNS drug delivery being the blood brain barrier (BBB) and that nanotechnological approaches have been designed to facilitate drug delivery across this physiological barrier. This review addresses the current challenges and strategies as well as the significance of nanotechnology for a better understanding and delivery of drugs across the BBB to reach damaged areas of the CNS in patients.

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2019

Sreeja C. Nair, Thayyilakandy, S., Arjun, K. K., Krishnakumar, G., and Gayathri, P. S., “A futuristic perspective in subsiding the symptoms of parkinson’s disease”, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 10, pp. 975-989, 2019.[Abstract]


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily impinges the dopaminergic neurons in a particular region of Brain termed as Substantia Nigra. The disease affects more than 1900 people per 100,000 aged 80 years and above. Furthermore, men are 1.5 times more prone than their counterpart. Potential biomarkers escalated the precise diagnosis and helped to initiate treatment to limit its adversity. The current therapeutic schemes are focused on administration of Dopamine precursor, Dopamine agonist, Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, Catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors and deep brain stimulation. The CNS delivery focuses mainly on increasing the dopamine level in the brain. CNS drug delivery faces a crucial challenge of crossing Blood Brain Barrier. Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration can be attained by several techniques. Conventional drug therapy yields harmful affects to the patients without much therapeutics. It is visible that crossing BBB is quite strenuous process. It is mandatory for developing a novel approach untangling these situations. Nanotechnology-based formulations like nanosuspensions, nanotubes etc. promotes the penetration of drug across the sophisticated barrier without creating any deterioration to cells or organs. Several novel routes for drug administration reduce dose intake with increased and precise pharmacological action. Nanoformulations and Novel routes of drug administration are a promising tool to enhance the action of drug which helps to abate the symptoms of the Disease and assist in the betterment in treatment. © 2018 Pharmascope Publications. All rights reserved.

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2019

Arya G. K., Kumar, A. A., Nair, A. J., Raju, J., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Nanodiscs: A new epoch in the study of membrane proteins and as an emerging drug delivery system”, International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, vol. 11, pp. 1-6, 2019.[Abstract]


Nano discs recently evolved as a novel tool for studying the membrane associated proteins and serve as an effective drug delivery system. Nano discs constitute disc shaped nano particles and can be defined as a membrane system which is synthetic in nature and aids in the study of membrane proteins. It is mainly made of phospholipid bilayer and the water repelling edge is isolated by amphipathic proteins called Membrane Scaffolding Proteins [MSP]. Micelles present in the nano disc mimics the property of the biological membrane proteins. It is a powerful technology that competently delivers the drug components in to the right cells in the right tissues. Membrane scaffold proteins are primarily expressed, purified and characterized and self-assembled to form Nano discs by the process of dialysis using biobeads. Nano discs are proven to be effective in the study of membrane proteins because they can fluidize and counterbalance and also help in reclusion, refinement, biophysical and biochemical studies of them. It also presents a more genuine environment than liposomes, bicelles, amphipols and detergent micelles. Major technological advantages of nano discs include the higher stability and carrier capacity and also the increased feasibility of incorporating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances of drug carrier. Thus nano discs serves as an excellent system in its ability to precisely control its composition and provide a nano scale membrane surface for investigating molecular recognition events. This article reviews the emphasis of nanodiscs in studying membrane proteins as well as its effectivity in transforming into a major drug delivery system. An overview of published literatures between 1996 and 2017 was conducted to write the review. © 2019 The Authors. More »»

2019

Aiswarya M. U., Keerthana Raju, Revathy B. Menon, Lakshmi V. S., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Cryptosomes: A revolutionary breakthrough in novel drug delivery”, International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, vol. 11, pp. 7-13, 2019.[Abstract]


The vesicular drug delivery systems are promising approaches to overthrown the problems of drugs having lesser bioavailability and rapid elimination from the body. The four type of lipid based drug delivery systems are: solid-lipid particulate system, emulsion based system, solid lipid tablet and vesicular system. Cryptosomes, a novel emerging vesicular drug delivery system which can overcome the disadvantages associated with conventional drug delivery systems like high stability, increased bioavailability, sustained release, decreased elimination of rapidly metabolizable drugs etc. The word Cryptosome was orginated from Greek word ‘’Crypto’’ means hidden and ‘’Soma’’ means body. It is formed from the mixture of phospholipids like distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine-polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) with distearoylphosphatidylcholine. These entire information regarding its origin and formation is explained in Dinesh Kumar et al. Vesicular systems symbolizes the use of vesicles in the different fields as carrier system or additives. This review disclose various vesicular drug delivery system and point out the advancement of cryptosome in the world of drug delivery. This review would help researchers involved in the field of vesicular drug delivery. © 2019 The Authors.

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2019

A. J. Nair, Raju, J., K, A. G., Kumar, A. A., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Bicosome: A versatile technology in biomedicine and dermopharmacy”, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 10, pp. 186-195, 2019.[Abstract]


Bicosomes opened a new chapter in vesicular drug delivery system which immensely contributed to the development of pharmaceutical research. They are defined as bicelles encapsulated in liposomal vesicular structure. One of the peculiar characteristics of bicosomes lies in its distinctive ability to maintain the morphology without any structural changes. They preserve and isolate bicelles from environments with high water contents. This drug delivery system has remarkable stability over temperature changes, in highly diluted media and also an effective permeability modulator for an effective transdermal drug delivery system. This vesicular system becomes a new application for the delivery of the drug through the skin. They are prepared by thin film hydration technique. Unique structures of bicosomes are small enough to pass through stratum corneum of the skin without any damage to tissues and cause structural transformation. This helps to hold the bicosomes between the skin layers and allows slow drug delivery. The capacity of these systems to regenerate skin barrier function and target specific action on skin layers finds its usefulness in the dermatological field. Thus bicosome technology is a versatile platform that can be applied in different skin disorders and appear to be smart nanosystems with great potential in biomedicine and dermopharmacy. © 2018 Pharmascope Publications. All rights reserved.

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2019

S. Shefrin, Sreelaxmi, C. S., Joseph, S., and Sreeja C. Nair, “A glance preface and novel approaches for the efficient treatment of a migraine”, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 10, pp. 282-297, 2019.[Abstract]


The reviewing of a migraine mainly aimed to analyze the incessant paroxys-mal neurological ailment characterized by moderate to severe head throbbing. The review points out the basic pathophysiology and different types of migraine as well as some of the promising newer antimigraine therapeutic options. The various biomarkers in CSF, as well as blood, are used as standards to diagnose the condition. The triptans released during the 1990s were the initial class of drugs used for acute treatment of migraine. The other conventional therapies offer especially as oral formulations are not exquisitely appropriate for migraineurs having severe nausea and vomiting with reduced gastric absorption. The unmet clinical needs were rapidly advanced, and development of novel drug delivery system ensured better kinetic and dynamic characteristics. The newer drug regimens were more based and targeted on the neurotransmitters directly in involved in the pathophysiology of migraine by utilizing exceptionally confined delivery systems. These include a breath activated the system, transdermal patch, oral inhalers where lower and safer doses of the drug were utilized. Such systems were having improved patient compliance and offered non-invasive route of drug administration that could be suitably substituted by oral medications. The disease disabled the quality of life of patients and also had an abundant effect in the daily activities especially for women. Thus the various nanotechnical approaches are used as novel treatment methods for better and enhanced profiling of drug molecules. © 2018 Pharmascope Publications. All rights reserved.

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2017

B. S. Kumar, Krishna, R., Lakshmi, P. S., Vasudev, D. T., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Formulation and evaluation of niosomal suspension of cefixime”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 194-201, 2017.[Abstract]


Objectives: The present study was aimed to overcome the problems associated with the drug such as bioavailability, to reduce the dosage regimen, half–life, and to determine the appropriateness of niosomal formulation as a drug carrier. Methods: The niosomal suspension was prepared by thin film technique, by varying ratios of span 60 and cholesterol and varying the concentration of span 60. The prepared four formulations were evaluated for various parameters. Results: The optimized formulation had a vesicular size of 250-400 nm. Varying the concentration of span 60, the entrapment efficiency demonstrated that it had a considerable task. The highest entrapment efficiency was 95.3%. The kinetics study confirmed that the liberation of drug from the niosomal suspension is in a restricted manner. The statistical optimization showed that NS2 is the optimized formulation. The gastrointestinal enzymes showed no significant change in the release of drug from the formulation. The zone of inhibition showed that optimized formulation has a better activity than the marketed formulation. The MIC was found to be 0.05 mg, hence can be used as an efficient carrier for delivery of cefixime. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the prepared niosomal suspension is a convenient and efficiency carrier for the delivery of antibacterial drug. Besides this, it provided controlled delivery of drug. © 2017 The Authors.

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2017

K. Ramesh, Krishnapriya, M., Paul, A., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Preparation and evaluation of chitosan sodium alginate carbamazepine microspheres”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 271-276, 2017.[Abstract]


Objective: The objective behind our study is that a mucoadhesive rectal hydrogel chitosan sodium alginate carbamazepine (CBZ) microspheres for the purpose of controlled release for the treatment of epilepsy to avoid the possible side effects. Methods: The study was conducted to formulate controlled release chitosan sodium alginate CBZ microspheres with the dispersion of CBZ into the natural polymers chitosan and sodium alginate forming microspheres conducting along with their evaluation studies. Results: The formulated microspheres were subjected to various evaluation parameters, and all the physical parameters examined are within the acceptable limits. Further, the optimized microsphere formulation (CM5) was characterized. Hence, the developed optimized microsphere formulation (CM5) seems to be a viable substitute to conventional drug delivery system for the effective management of epilepsy. Conclusion: The prepared formulation also provides a desired CBZ loaded sodium alginate microspheres with the controlled release drug delivery. © 2017 The Authors.

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2017

M. Krishnapriya, Ramesh, K., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Antiepileptic rectal hydrogel loaded with carbamazepine – Rice bran wax microspheres”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 264-270, 2017.[Abstract]


Objectives: The objective behind the study is to develop a mucoadhesive rectal hydrogel from carbamazepine (CBZ) – rice bran wax (RBW) microspheres for the purpose of controlled release for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods: The study was conducted to formulate controlled release rectal hydrogel loaded with CBZ – RBW microspheres in two different natural polymers, RBW and collagen which are prepared by modified cooling induced solidification method and gel preparation along with their evaluation studies. Results: A thorough analysis of the optimized gel revealed that all the evaluation parameters evaluated are within the acceptable limits. Further, the optimized microsphere formulation (M5) was used to formulate it as rectal hydrogel using polymer collagen and was characterized. The mucoadhesion time of 25% w/w collagen hydrogel (H4) was 565 minutes, allowing the loaded microspheres to be attached on rectal mucosa. In vitro drug release from the mucoadhesive hydrogel formulations showed controlled drug release pattern with a maximum drug release of 96.45±0.35% for optimized H4 formulation after 12 hr, followed zero order release pattern with diffusion mediated Higuchi model. Ex vivo permeation studies using bovine rectal mucosa revealed that H4 formulation showed greater permeability compared to control. Histopathological findings revealed that H4 formulation is safer for rectal administration without any signs of rectal irritancy. The stability studies of optimized formulation (H4) proved that hydrogel remained stable over a wide range of temperature condition. Conclusion: Hence, the developed rectal hydrogel formulation seems to be a viable alternative to conventional drug delivery system for the effective management of epilepsy. © 2017 The Authors.

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2016

K. M. Fathima, Nitheesh, A., Paul, A., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Sphingosome vescicular system”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 41, pp. 208-213, 2016.[Abstract]


Vesicular drug delivery system has overtaken the pre existing drugs by improving therapeutic efficacy and by sustaining and controlling action. Liposomes, herosomes, sphingosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, pharmacasomes, niosomes, transferosomes are the newly developed vesicular drug delivery system. This article mainly deals with the sphingosomal drug delivery system. It provides a brief description about advantages and disadvantages of sphingosomes, the main classification of sphingosomes and highlights about its applications. Sphingosomes are vesicular drug delivery system which is made up of a lipid bilayer membrane enclosing an aqueous volume. Because of its wide variety of application in treatment of cancer, cosmetics, gene delivery, ocular drug delivery; it has become a better area of field of study. These systems have enhanced therapeutic index of all drugs by encapsulating these medications inside aqueous volume. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research.

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2014

Sreeja C. Nair, John, M. S., and Anoop, K. R., “In situ gel: An innovative approach for safe and sustained nasal drug delivery”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 24, pp. 1-7, 2014.

2014

Sreeja C. Nair and Anoop, K. R., “Design and in vitro evaluation of controlled release Satranidazole subgingival films for periodontitis therapy”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 24, pp. 8-14, 2014.

2014

Sreekumaran A Nair, Vidhya, K. M., Saranya, T. R., Sreelakshmy, K. R., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Mucoadhesive buccal patch of Cefixime trihydrate using biodegradable natural polymer”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 366-371, 2014.[Abstract]


Objective: The objective behind the study was to develop a bio erodible mucoadhesive buccal patch containing Cefixime trihydrate as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of bacterial infections and their evaluation. Methods: Cefixime trihydrate buccal patches were prepared by solvent casting method. Results: The formulated patches were subjected to various evaluation parameters and all the physical parameters evaluated are within the acceptable limits. The formulation F5 showed maximum release 98.1% while other formulations showed less amount of drug release in 7 hr. The in vitro antibacterial activity by agar diffusion assay demonstrated a significant antibacterial profile of the optimized patch F5 against Streptococcus species. The morphological study by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that the upper surface of patch containing Cefixime (F5) was rough with numerous pores inside it. The stability study proved that the formulation F5 was found to be stable. Conclusion: The prepared formulation also provides a desired antimicrobial sustained drug delivery into the systemic circulation.

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2013

M. N. Anjana, Jipnomon Joseph, and Sreeja C. Nair, “Solubility enhancement methods -a promising technology for poorly water soluble drugs”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 20, pp. 127-134, 2013.[Abstract]


The most challenging task in drug development is enhancement of solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of drug. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. Drug to be absorbed should be in solution form at the site of absorption. Absorption of orally administered drugs will take place only when they show fair solubility in gastric medium and such drugs show good bioavailability. Solubility and dissolution properties of drugs play an important role in the process of formulation and development. Major challenge for formulation scientist is the solubility problem which can be solved by different technological approaches during the pharmaceutical product development work. This review gives detailed information about various technologies used for enhancing solubility and dissolution of poorly soluble drugs, including nanotechnology methods for enhancing solubility to reduce the percentage of poorly soluble drug candidates eliminated from the development. Selection of this solubility enhancing method mainly depends on drug property, site of absorption and dosage form characteristics.

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2013

M. S. John, Sreeja C. Nair, and Anoop, K. R., “Thermoreversible mucoadhesive gel for nasal delivery of anti hypertensive drug”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 21, pp. 57-63, 2013.[Abstract]


The present study was aimed to develop a mucoadhesive in-situ gel of Carvedilol for improved bioavailability by circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism and patient compliance. Carvedilol was incorporated into the blends of thermoreversible polymer pluronic F 188(PF 188) and bioadhesive polymer Carbopol 940 in the form of in-situ gel by cold technique to reduce the muco ciliary clearance, and thereby it will increase the contact of formulation with nasal mucosa and hence improving drug absorption. The prepared gels were characterized by Gelation temp, pH, Drug content, Gel strength, permeation studies, Histopathological evaluation, stability study etc. The results revealed that as the concentration of Carbopol increases there was a decrease in the gelation temperature. pH of all the formulations were found to be within the range between 4.5-6.0 and the nasal mucosa can tolerate the above mentioned pH of the formulations. The drug content of all formulations was found to be 97.44 to 99.17%. Tests also revealed that as the level of carbopol increases mucoadhesive strength also increase. Viscosity measurement of the formulations at temperatures 25°C & 37°C, shows that there was increase in viscosity with increase in the temperature and it was found that all formulations were in liquid state at room temperature and were converted into gel at nasal physiological temperature. The optimized formulation showed a drug release of 93.98% in 480 min. The biopolymers used and their compositions in the in-situ gels preparation greatly affected the drug release which allows absorption in the nasal mucosa.

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2013

Sreeja C. Nair and Anoop, K. R., “Local antimicrobial delivery of Satranidazole loaded cross linked periodontal chips using bio degradable polymers”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 839-847, 2013.[Abstract]


Objective: The goal in using a local nonsurgical controlled intrapocket device for the delivery of an antimicrobial agent is the achievement and maintenance of therapeutic drug concentration for the desired period of time. Methods: The study was conducted to fabricate a bio erodible delivery system for Satranidazole, dispersed in two different polymers, natural Chitosan and semi synthetic HPMC polymers by simple casting method. The prepared chips were cross linked with glutaraldehyde 2 and 4 %v/v for 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours for extended release. Results: All chips prepared have good physicochemical properties. Static dissolution studies showed a burst release initially followed by a slow sustained release when cross-linking was attempted. The percentage cumulative drug release was greater in chitosan than HPMC. In vitro release and permeation Kinetics showed zero order profile. The cross linked formulations C52C3 and H52C1 are better than others because the extent of release was maintained for 8 and 6 days respectively. Histopathological studies of the periodontal mucosa suggested that the formulations were safe for local anti microbial treatment in to the infected periodontal pocket. The optimized formulation C52C3 showed highest mucosal permeation of Satranidazole and greater growth inhibition area for Porphyromonas gingivalis. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the upper surface of cross linked chips was smooth.The stability studies did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: The findings of the results easily predict the fact that chitosan and HPMC can be used to prepare chip utilizing the anti microbial property of Satranidazole for treating periodontitis.

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2012

Sreeja C. Nair and Anoop, K. R., “Intraperiodontal pocket: An ideal route for local antimicrobial drug delivery”, Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, vol. 3, pp. 9-15, 2012.[Abstract]


Periodontal pockets act as a natural reservoir filled with gingival crevicular fluid for the controlled release delivery of antimicrobials directly. This article reflects the present status of nonsurgical controlled local intrapocket delivery of antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. These sites have specialty in terms of anatomy, permeability, and their ability to retain a delivery system for a desired length of time. A number of antimicrobial products and the composition of the delivery systems, its use, clinical results, and their release are summarized. The goal in using an intrapocket device for the delivery of an antimicrobial agent is the achievement and maintenance of therapeutic drug concentration for the desired period of time. Novel controlled drug delivery system are capable of improving patient compliance as well as therapeutic efficacy with precise control of the rate by which a particular drug dosage is released from a delivery system without the need for frequent administration. These are considered superior drug delivery system because of low cost, greater stability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, and are biodegradable in nature. This review also focus on the importance and ideal features of periodontal pockets as a drug delivery platform for designing a suitable dosage form along with its potential advantage and limitations. The microbes in the periodontal pocket could destroy periodontal tissues, and a complete knowledge of these as well as an ideal treatment strategy could be helpful in treating this disease.

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Faculty Research Interest: