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Publication Type : Journal Article
Publisher : International Journal of Nursing Education and research .
Source : International Journal of Nursing Education and research, Volume 4, Issue 4 (2016)
Keywords : ventilator-associated pneumonia, mechanical ventilation, nosocomial infection, risk factor, intensive care unit, prevention.
Campus : Kochi
School : College of Nursing
Department : Medical Surgical Nursing
Year : 2016
Abstract : Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), a hospital acquired pneumonia that occurs more than 48 h after mechanical ventilation, is a common complication of mechanical ventilation with a high mortality rate. VAP can cause patients to have difficulty weaning off the ventilator and to stay in the hospital longer, which results in a huge financial burden to patients and a huge demand for medical resources. Several strategies, such as drugs including chlorhexidine, β-lactam antibiotics and probiotics, have been used to prevent VAP in clinic. The incidence and the mortality rate of VAP have been decreased with the development of preventative strategies in the past decades, but VAP remains one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections and death in the intensive care unit. Current challenges in the management of VAP involved the lack of a gold standard for diagnosis, the absence of effective preventative strategies, and the rise in antibiotic resistance. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of VAP and improve the outcome of patients with mechanical ventilation, it is necessary to clarify the risk factors of VAP for clinical prevention and control of VAP. This paper reviews the international risk factors of VAP occurrence reported in recent years, including patient characteristics, increased mechanical ventilation time and prolonged length of hospital stay, disorders of consciousness, burns, comorbidities, prior antibiotic therapy, invasive operations, gene polymorphisms, and mentions the corresponding preventive measures. Each factor is not only an independent risk factor of VAP, but also has an influence on each other. A better understanding of risk factors for VAP is helpful for predicting the occurrence of VAP, improving the prevention and control of VAP, and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of patients with VAP.
Cite this Research Publication : V. G, Prof. Sheela Pavithran, and M, S. K., “Risk factors and measures to prevent ventilator associated events among mechanical ventilated patients in selected ICU’s of a tertiary care hospital”, International Journal of Nursing Education and research, vol. 4, no. 4, 2016.