Properties of semiconductors: Electron and photon distribution: density of states, effective mass and band structure, effect of temperature and pressure on band gap, recombination processes.
Basics of semiconductor optics: Dual nature of light, band structure of various semiconductors, light absorption and emission, photoluminescence. electroluminescence, radioactive and non-radiative recombination, wave trains.
Semiconductor light-emitting diodes: Structure and types of LEDs and their characteristics, guided waves and optical modes, optical gain, confinement factor, internal and external efficiency, semiconductor heterojunctions, doubleheterostructure LEDs.
Semiconductor lasers: Spontaneous and stimulated emission, principles of a laser diode, threshold current, effect of temperature, design of an edge-emitting diode, emission spectrum of a laser diode, quantum wells, quantum-well laser diodes.
Semiconductor light modulators: Modulating light (direct modulation of laser diodes, electro-optic modulation, acousto-optic modulation), isolating light (magneto-optic isolators), inducing optical nonlinearity (frequency conversion, switching)
Semiconductor light detectors: I-V characteristics of a p-n diode under illumination, photovoltaic and photoconductive modes, load line, photocells and photodiodes, pi-n photodiodes, responsivity, noise and sensitivity, photodiode materials, electric circuits with photodiodes, solar cells.