Qualification: 
Ph.D, M.E, BE
ravikumarpandiv@am.amrita.edu

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi received Ph.D in Electrical Engineering (Power Systems) from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi. His dissertation was on “Evolutionary Computing Techniques and its Applications to Electric Power Dispatch”. Dr. Ravikumar Pandi received his Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, in 2003 and Master of Engineering (M.E.) in Power Systems from Annamalai University, Chithambaram, in 2005.

Dr. Ravikumar Pandi joined Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri campus, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering as Assistant Professor in July 2016. Earlier, he was a Post-Doctoral Researcher at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE during February 2010 to December 2015. He also worked as a Lecturer at Sri Venkateshwara College of Engineering, Sriperumpudur, Chennai during June 2005 to July 2006.

Dr. Ravikumar Pandi's area of interest include Integration and impact analysis of Distributed Energy Resources, Micro-grid Design, Energy Management System-Operation and Control, Demand Response – implementation and benefit studies, Power System Modeling and Analysis, Congestion Management, Protection Coordination, Power Quality Assessment, Signal Processing, Deregulated Electricity Markets, Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms and Artificial Intelligence Techniques. He has to his credit 2 book chapters, 25 International/National Journals publications and 13 International/National Conference publications. He is guiding Ph.D research scholars, several B.Tech projects and M.Tech dissertations.

He serves as a reviewer for IEEE Transactions on Smart Grids, Power Systems, Power Delivery, Industrial Electronics, IET Transactions on Renewable Power Generation, Generation Transmission Distribution, Int. Journal of Electric Power and Energy Systems, European Transaction on Electric Power, Applied Energy, Soft Computing, Memetic Computing, Neuro Computing, etc. He has also served as technical committee member and reviewer for many IEEE and other international conferences/workshops.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Journal Article

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Al-Hinai, A., and Feliachi, A., “Adaptive coordinated feeder flow control in distribution system with the support of distributed energy resources”, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Elsevier, vol. 85, pp. 190-199, 2017.[Abstract]


This paper aims to minimize the feeder power flow deviation from scheduled value by balancing generation and load demand within the distribution system under various local disturbances. The available distributed energy resources (DER) can be properly utilized to control the feeder flow which gains significant advantages (i) to support load frequency control (LFC) problem at transmission level (ii) reduces unscheduled interchange in feeder which is priced higher (iii) increased reliability of the grid. The deviation in feeder flow is reduced by properly coordinating the power output from DER such as fuel cell, battery storage system and responsive loads (demand response) through an adaptive fuzzy controller with optimally tuned gains using particle swarm optimization. The level of participation from each DER units are decided using fuzzy inference system based on the availability of resources and level of disturbance. The photovoltaic array and wind turbine are also considered in the system and always operated at the maximum power point. The proposed method is examined on IEEE 37 bus system implemented in the MATLAB based Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) for performing time-domain dynamic analysis. It is shown that the proposed adaptive controller exhibits better performance for various disturbance conditions. More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Feliachi, A., and Al-Hinai, A., “Coordinated Control of Distributed Energy Resources to Support Load Frequency Control”, Energy Conversion and Management, Elsevier, pp. 918-928, 2015.[Abstract]


The control of generating resources to follow the unscheduled load changes is considered to be an essential process in the power system in order to maintain the frequency of power supply. This load frequency control (LFC) problem has been given more importance in the recent smart grid environment because of the impact from high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) installed at the distribution level. The renewable sources are highly intermittent in nature, so it is required to coordinate and control the DER units to maintain the feeder power flow at substation bus bar which is seen by transmission system operator during the LFC process. This paper aims to identify the impact of distributed generation and its control method to reduce the deviation of feeder power flow from the scheduled value in real time operation. The error in feeder power flow with respect to scheduled value is utilized by the PI controller to estimate the change in power reference of all DER units. The power output of DER units are maintained to reference values by the individual PI controllers. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to minimize the error in feeder power flow by optimally tuning the gain values of all PI controllers. The proposed method is examined on a small transmission system along with the feeder of IEEE 37 bus distribution system with balanced loading condition. The complete system along with DER units is implemented in the MATLAB based stability package named Power Analysis Toolbox (PAT) for performing time domain analysis. The impact on feeder flow and system frequency for the disturbance in load and weather condition without feeder control scheme (NFC) is compared with the feeder control scheme (WFC). More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. M. Tahboub, Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, and Zeineldin, H. H., “Distribution System Reconfiguration for Annual Energy Loss Reduction Considering Variable Distributed Generation Profiles”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 30, pp. 1677-1685, 2015.[Abstract]


In this paper, a new formulation for distribution system reconfiguration (DSR) is proposed for minimizing the annual energy losses considering the variability in active and reactive power demand and distributed generation (DG) profiles. A fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm is used to obtain representative centroids from annual DG and power demand profiles. The DSR study is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming optimization problem and tested on a 33-bus and an 84-bus system. The minimization is subject to the power balance, bus voltage, and distribution system radiality constraints. Using this formulation, a single optimum configuration that minimizes annual energy losses is found and shown to be different from the optimum configuration, found in previous literature, which focuses on minimizing power losses at peak or average loads. In addition, the prospective advantages of grid automation on DSR are demonstrated to provide further energy loss reduction by including the possibility of interchanging a predefined number of configurations that minimize annual energy losses. More »»

2014

Journal Article

F. A. Rahiman, Zeineldin, H. H., Khadkikar, V., Kennedy, S. W., and Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, “Demand Response Mismatch (DRM): Concept, Impact Analysis, and Solution”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 5, pp. 1734-1743, 2014.[Abstract]


Demand response (DR) is emerging as one of the key smart grid components that plays a major role in achieving adequate supply-demand balance. DR is often considered as a market resource and thus there is more focus in the literature on economic aspects, thereby neglecting the DR’s interaction and impact on the power system operation. This paper identifies a potential gap while employing DR in distribution systems. Usually, the load reactive power and the load’s voltage dependency are ignored in the DR studies. It is shown in this paper that the inclusion of these two elements results in an active power mismatch between the scheduled and the actually achieved DR. A new term that is capable of quantifying this mismatch is introduced and is termed as “demand response mismatch (DRM).” To overcome such problem, this paper proposes a mixed integer non linear program (MINLP) to find the optimal size and location of STATCOM and/or optimal transformer tap setting that can minimize the DRM. The phenomenon of DRM is illustrated using a standard 16-bus U.K. generic distribution system (UKGDS) while considering different load power factors, load reduction amounts, load models, as well as DR locations. More »»

2013

Journal Article

H. H. Zeineldin, Mohamed, Y. A. R. I., Khadkikar, V., and Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, “A Protection Coordination Index for Evaluating Distributed Generation Impacts on Protection for Meshed Distribution Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, pp. 1523-1532, 2013.[Abstract]


Depending on the capacity, type and location, distributed generation (DG) can have an impact on protection coordination of directional over-current relays for looped distribution systems. In this paper, a new index is proposed, “protection coordination index” (PCI), which can serve as an effective measure when planning the protection of meshed distribution systems with DG. A two-phase non-linear programming (NLP) optimization problem is proposed to determine the PCI by optimally calculating variations in the maximum DG penetration level with changes in the protection coordination time interval. Furthermore, the influence of connecting a DG at a certain location on the system PCIs is examined. The presented analysis is tested on the distribution section of the IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 30-bus systems. The PCI can serve as an efficient index for distribution system planners: (i) to determine the best DG candidate locations for utility owned DG and (ii) to evaluate the impact of a customer owned DG, considering distribution system protection. More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Zeineldin, H. H., and Xiao, W., “Determining Optimal Location and Size of Distributed Generation Resources Considering Harmonic and Protection Coordination Limits”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, pp. 1245-1254, 2013.[Abstract]


In this paper, a new optimization problem is proposed to determine the maximum distributed generation (DG) penetration level by optimally selecting types, locations and sizes of utility owned DG units. The DG penetration level could be limited by harmonic distortion because of the nonlinear current injected by inverter-based DG units and also protection coordination constraints because of the variation in fault current caused by synchronous-based DG units. Hence the objective of the proposed problem is to maximize DG penetration level from both types of DG units, taking into account power balance constraints, bus voltage limits, total and individual harmonic distortion limits specified by the IEEE-519 standard, over-current relay operating time limits, and protection coordination constraints. The DG penetration study is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem and tested on the IEEE-30 bus looped distribution network with ten load and DG scenarios. Similarly, feasibility assessment of customer owned DG unit installations considering power quality and protection coordination is also studied. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which can serve as an efficient planning tool for utility operators. More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Panigrahi, B. K., Sharma, R., Das, S., and Das, S., “Multiobjective bacteria foraging algorithm for electrical load dispatch problem”, International Journal on Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 1334–1342, 2011.[Abstract]


In this paper the bacteria foraging meta-heuristic is extended into the domain of multiobjective optimization. In this multiobjective bacteria foraging (MOBF) optimization technique, during chemotaxis a set of intermediate bacteria positions are generated. Next, we use pareto non-dominance criterion to determine final set of bacteria positions, which constitute the superior solutions among current and intermediate solutions. To test the efficacy of our proposed algorithm we have chosen a highly constrained optimization problem namely economic/emission dispatch. Economic dispatch is a constrained optimization problem in power system to distribute the load demand among the committed generators economically. Now-a-days environmental concern that arises due to the operation of fossil fuel fired electric generators and global warming, transforms the classical economic load dispatch problem into multiobjective environmental/economic dispatch (EED). In the proposed work, we have considered the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system on which several other multiobjective evolutionary algorithms are tested. We have also made a comparative study of the proposed algorithm with that of reported in the literature. Results show that the proposed algorithm is a capable candidate in solving the multiobjective economic emission load dispatch problem. More »»

2008

Journal Article

B. K. Panigrahi, Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, and Das, S., “Adaptive particle swarm optimization approach for static and dynamic economic load dispatch”, International Journal on Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 49, 2008.[Abstract]


This paper presents a novel heuristic optimization approach to constrained economic load dispatch (ELD) problems using the adaptive–variable population – PSO technique. The proposed methodology easily takes care of different constraints like transmission losses, dynamic operation constraints (ramp rate limits) and prohibited operating zones and also accounts for non-smoothness of cost functions arising due to the use of multiple fuels. Simulations were performed over various systems with different numbers of generating units, and comparisons are performed with other existing relevant approaches. The findings affirmed the robustness, fast convergence and proficiency of the proposed methodology over other existing techniques. More »»

2008

Journal Article

B. K. Panigrahi and Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, “A Bacterial foraging optimisation: Nelder-Mead hybrid algorithm for economic load dispatch”, IET Generation, Transmission Distribution, vol. 2, pp. 556-565, 2008.[Abstract]


A novel stochastic optimisation approach to solve constrained economic load dispatch problem using hybrid bacterial foraging (BF) technique is presented. in order to explore the search space for finding the local minima of the current location, the simplex algorithm called nelder-mead is used along with BF algorithm. the proposed methodology easily takes care of solving non-convex economic dispatch problems along with different constraints such as transmission losses, dynamic operation constraints (ramp rate limits) and prohibited zones. simulations were performed over various standard test systems with different number of generating units and comparisons are performed with other existing relevant approaches. the findings affirmed the robustness and proficiency of proposed methodology over other existing techniques. More »»

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2013

Conference Paper

M. ElMoursi, Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Khadkikar, V., Lee, S. Hee, Lee, J. Hee, and Lee, S., “Basic design of UAE's smart microgrid and the simulation analysis using PSCAD”, in 2013 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting, 2013.[Abstract]


This paper covers the basic design and simulation study performed on the smart micro grid in UAE's offshore island called Al Futaisi island. The capacity of all distributed energy resources (DER) are selected based on the existing loads and forecasted demand. The solar and wind generation is considered as the primary power source to meet all the load demand in Al Futaisi island. The battery energy storage system (BESS) is considered as the primal backup power source during no power generation from renewable sources, which gives the uniqueness in the design of UAE's smart micro grid that can operate on 100% renewable energy. The micro turbine operated using bio fuel produced from Algae farm is also considered in the design. The demonstration of a high-efficiency DC power distribution system is also considered, which makes the micro grid as hybrid power system. The water demand is met by Reverse Osmosis sea-water desalination plant which will be located in the island. The basic design is verified by PSCAD/EMTDC simulation and the outcome of the simulation shows that such a renewable generation smart micro grid will be a reliable and robust for providing power to areas with limited power infrastructure. More »»

2013

Conference Paper

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Kennedy, S., ElMoursi, M., Xiao, W., Jeong, H. D., and Mok, I. S., “A Conceptual Design of UAE’s Smart Microgrid with Coordinated Power Management Strategy”, in 13th Spanish Portuguese conference on Electrical Engineering (13CHLIE), 2013.

2012

Conference Paper

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Zeineldin, H. H., and Xiao, W., “Passive harmonic filter planning to overcome power quality issues in radial distribution systems”, in 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012.[Abstract]


In power systems, power quality issues raised by various non-linear devices (NLD) might violate the allowable harmonic limits defined by IEEE-519 standard. In order to maintain the total harmonic distortion well below the allowable limits, passive harmonic filters are commonly used. This paper presents an algorithm to optimally plan passive harmonic filters in the distribution networks to minimize the total voltage harmonic distortion. The optimization considers the filter location, size, type, quality factor and tuned harmonic order with constraints of bus voltage magnitudes, total and individual harmonic limits and filter components design and operating limits. The proposed approach is developed by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and tested on IEEE 18-bus and IEEE 33-bus radial distribution systems. The evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the optimization solution in identifying the best filter location, capacity and type. More »»

2011

Conference Paper

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Zeineldin, H. H., and Xiao, W., “Allowable DG penetration level considering harmonic distortions”, in IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2011.[Abstract]


The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) requires careful study with respect to selecting both the best DG location and the size of the DG unit. The DG installation at the distribution level injects harmonics, and thus may lead to significant power quality problems. In this paper, the impact of DG penetration level and DG location is evaluated by considering the power quality limits of IEEE Standard 519-1992. The nonlinear optimization problem is formulated with size of DG being a positive real number to be optimized and solved using particle swarm optimization. The optimization algorithm is integrated with the harmonic power flow algorithm to calculate the values of the system operating point and harmonic components. The formulated approach is tested on an IEEE 18-bus radial distribution system and the results show that the consideration of harmonics during DG interconnection studies is essential to avoid associated power quality problems. More »»

2009

Conference Paper

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Panigrahi, B. K., Mallick, M. K., Abraham, A., and Das, S., “Improved Harmony Search for Economic Power Dispatch”, in 2009 Ninth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems, 2009.[Abstract]


This paper presents a novel optimization approach using Improved Harmony Search (IHS) algorithm to solve economic power dispatch problem. The proposed methodology easily takes care of different equality and inequality constraints of the power dispatch problem to find the optimal solution. To show its efficiency, the proposed algorithm is applied to single area and multi area system of four area having 16 units with and without Prohibited Operating Zones (POZ). The results are compared with other existing relevant approaches. The result obtained by the proposed method confirmed that the robustness and efficiency of the algorithms over other reported methods. More »»

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2010

Book Chapter

B. K. Panigrahi, Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, Das, S., and Abraham, A., “Population Variance Harmony Search Algorithm to Solve Optimal Power Flow with Non-Smooth Cost Function”, in Recent Advances In Harmony Search Algorithm, Z. Woo Geem Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, pp. 65–75.[Abstract]


This chapter presents a novel Harmony Search (HS) algorithm used to solve security constrained optimal power flow (OPF) with various generator fuel cost characteristics. HS is a recently developed derivative-free, meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, which draws inspiration from the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. This chapter analyses the evolution of the populationvariance over successive generations in HS and thereby draws some important attention regarding the explorative power of HS. This novel methodology of modified population variance harmony search algorithm (PVHS) easily takes care of solving optimal power flow problem even with non-smooth and piecewise cost functions. This PVHS algorithm was tested on the IEEE30 bus system with three different types of cost characteristics and compared with other reported results. More »»

2010

Book Chapter

Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi and Panigrahi, B. K., “Comparative Study of Evolutionary Computing Methods for Parameter Estimation of Power Quality Signals”, in International Journal of Applied Evolutionary Computation (IJAEC), vol. 1, 2010.[Abstract]


Recently utilities and end users become more concerned about power quality issues because the load equipments are more sensitive to various power quality disturbances, such as harmonics and voltage fluctuation. Harmonic distortion and voltage flicker are the major causes in growing concern about electric power quality. Power quality disturbance monitoring plays an important role in the deregulated power market scenario due to competitiveness among the utilities. This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm approach based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) to determine the amplitude, phase and frequency of a power quality signal. In this APSO algorithm the time varying inertia weight is modified as rank based, and re-initialization is used to increase the diversity. In this paper, to the authors highlight the efficacy of different evolutionary optimization techniques like classical PSO, Constriction based PSO, Clonal Algorithm (CLONALOG), Adaptive Bacterial Foraging (ABF) and the proposed Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) to extract different parameters like amplitude, phase and frequency of harmonic distorted power quality signal and voltage flicker.

More »»

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2010

Conference Proceedings

B. - Y. Qu, Suganthan, P. N., Dr. V. Ravikumar Pandi, and Panigrahi, B. K., “Multi Objective Evolutionary Programming to Solve Environmental Economic Dispatch Problem”, 11th Int. Conf. Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Singapore. 2010.[Abstract]


In this paper, the nonlinear constrained multiobjective environmental economic dispatch (EED) problem is solved using fast multi-objective evolutionary programming (FMOEP). Due to the global warming by fossil fuel, environmental concern becomes more and more important in recent years. The purpose of multi-objective optimization algorithm is minimizing all the different objectives simultaneously and finds the best tradeoff solution for this environmental/economic dispatch problem. In order to evaluate the performance of FMOEP on EED problems, the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system is studied. The performance is compared against NSGAII and a number of results reported in literature. The results show that the FMOEP is effective in solving EED problems. More »»

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