Investigations for culverts and minor bridges, Investigations for major bridges - topography, catchment, hydrology, geotechnical aspects, construction resources - design flood discharge - methods, linear waterway. choice of foundation for piers and abutments - types - cost ratio - clearance - choice of foundation - open, pile, well, block foundations - relative suitability. setting out for piers and abutments for minor and major bridges. classification of culverts and bridges - components of bridge structures - loading standards - railway and road loading standards. Types of foundations.
Piers and abutments - function, aesthetics, materials; wing walls - construction aspects. super structure - types - choice of materials - design principles, considerations and criteria of pipe culverts, slab culvert, box culvert, causeways. Design of T beam and slab bridge - design principles of RC balanced cantilever bridge and articulation. Design concepts of rigid frame bridges - thumb rule design of masonry arch bridges - design of bowstring girder bridge and components.
Suspension bridges, cable stayed bridges and their components; bearings - types - design of rocker and roller bearings. Bridge superstructure construction - supports and centering for RC bridges - erection of precast RC girders and steel girder bridges - maintenance of bridges, strengthening of masonry arch bridges.