Qualities of measurements: Introduction, performance characteristics, errors in measurements, types of static error, sources of error, dynamic characteristics, statistical analysis, standards.
DC and AC bridges: Wheatstone bridge, Kelvin’s Bridge, inductance and capacitance measurements-Maxwell’s bridge, De-sauty’s bridge, Schering bridge, Wein bridge and Anderson bridge.
Analog meters: Basic meter movement, taut band, Electrodynamometer type (EDM), Moving Iron Instruments. Measurement of current – ammeter, multirange ammeter, Aryton shunt, extension of ammeter ranges. Measurement of voltage – basic meter as voltmeter, multirange voltmeter, extension of voltmeter range, loading effect, AC voltmeter using half wave and full wave rectifier, average, peak and true RMS voltmeters.
Instrument Transformers: Current Transformer, ratio and phase angle error, potential transformer.
Measurement of Power and Energy: EDM type wattmeter and Power factor meters, energy meter, calibration of meters.
Oscilloscope: Basic principle, CRT features, block diagram of oscilloscope, sampling, storage oscilloscopes, Digital storage oscilloscope, applications of CRO.
Transducers: Electrical transducers, selecting a transducers, resistive transducers, strain gauge, thermistor, RTD, inductive transducers, LVDT, capacitive transducer, piezo electric, photo voltaic cell, photo diode, photo transistors.
Digital Voltmeters: Ramp and dual slope integrating type DVM, Successive approximation type analog to digital conversion techniques, resolution and sensitivity of digital meters, digital frequency, time and phase measurements. Smart energy meter and net metering.
Instrumentation Systems: Block diagram, Signal conditioning systems, Instrumentation amplifier.
Data Acquisition and Data transmission: Objectives of DAS, single/multichannel DAS, digital to analog converters, data loggers, RTU, data transmission systems, advantages of digital transmission, time division multiplexing.