Combined first law and second law of open systems, reversible steady flow work, available energy, irreversibility, exergy and second law efficiency.
Vapour power cycles: Simple Rankine Cycle, reheat cycle, regenerative cycles
Steam nozzles: Steam flow through nozzles. Nozzle efficiency. Supersaturated or metastable expansion of steam in a nozzle. General relationship between area, velocity and pressure in nozzle flow.
Steam turbines: Impulse and Reactions turbine, compounding principles.
Internal combustion engines: Stoichiometry, enthalpy of formation and enthalpy of combustion, adiabatic flame temperature, Otto and Diesel cycles. Spark ignition engines and compression ignition engines. Indicator diagrams. Combustion phenomenon in S.I & C.I. engines. Diesel knock. Octane and Cetane number, Supercharging, Testing and performance of IC engines.
Air compressors: Design of reciprocating compressors. Effect of clearance and volumetric efficiency. Adiabatic, isothermal and mechanical efficiencies. Multistage compressor. Optimum intermediate pressure.
Gas turbines: Gas turbine cycles. Methods to improve efficiency of gas turbines. Jet propulsion.
Refrigeration systems: Air refrigeration systems. Vapour compression system. Vapour absorption system. Refrigerants.
Air conditioning systems: Psychrometry, Air-conditioning equipment, components and control, cooling load calculations.