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Course Detail

Course Name VLSI Fabrication Technology
Course Code 15ECE371
Program B. Tech. in Electronics and Communication Engineering
Year Taught 2019


Unit 1

Brief History of Semiconductor technology, Scaling Trends and Scaling Methodologies, Scaling Challenges, ITRS Roadmap; Starting material, silicon structure and properties, Czochralski and Float Zone crystal growth, GaAs growth; Silicon oxidation methods and properties, Deal Grove Model, Photolithography – masks, pattern transfer techniques, minimum resolvable feature sizes, UV sources, photoresists.

Unit 2

Diffusion and ion implantation, Types of diffusion, Ficks laws, junction depth, Stopping mechanisms, Gaussian implantation profile, variations to predicted distribution, implantation damage and annealing; Deposition requirements and techniques – Physical and Chemical Vapor deposition, Epitaxial growth techniques; Wet and dry etching techniques, Etch requirements, Chemical Mechanical Polishing;

Unit 3

Interconnect Technology – Copper and Aluminum interconnects, Silicodes, Isolation, CMOS and BJT Process flow; CMOS process for sub-100nm era – dielectrics and gate electrodes, Low K Dielectrics with Cu, Strained silicon, Silicon Germanium, Process Techniques to overcome Short Channel Effects, Nanolithography techniques, SOI Technology, Ultra Shallow Junction. Multiple Gate MOSFETs.

Text Books

  1. Peter Van Zant, “Microchip Fabrication: A Practical Guide to Semiconductor Processing”, McGraw- Hill Professional, Sixth Edition, 2014.


    1. Gary. S. May and S. M. Sze, “Fundamentals of semiconductor fabrication”, John Wiley, First Edition, 2003.
    2. Marc J. Madou, “Fundamentals of Microfabrication and Nanotechnology – Volume II”, CRC Press, Third Edition, 2011.
    3. James D. Plummer, Michael D. Deal, Peter B. Griffin, “Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling”, Prentice Hall India Private Limited, 2000.

Stephen Campbell, “Science of Microelectronic Fabrication”, Oxford University Press, 2001.


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