Historical introduction: Old Indian and western – astronomy - Aryabhatta, Tycho Brahe, Copernicus, Galileo - Olbers paradox - solar system – satellites, planets, comets, meteorites, asteroids.
Practical astronomy - telescopes and observations & techniques – constellations, celestial coordinates, ephemeris.
Celestial mechanics - Kepler’s laws - and derivations from Newton’s laws.
Sun: Structure and various layers, sunspots, flares, faculae, granules, limb darkening, solar wind and climate.
Stellar astronomy: H-R diagram, color-magnitude diagram - main sequence - stellar evolution – red giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes - accretion disc - Schwartzchild radius - stellar masses Saha–Boltzman equation - derivation and interpretation.
Variable stars: Cepheid, RR Lyrae and Mira type variables - Novae and Super novae. Binary and multiple star system - measurement of relative masses and velocities. Interstellar clouds - Nebulae.
Galactic astronomy: Distance measurement - red shifts and Hubble’s law – age of the universe, galaxies – morphology - Hubble’s classification - gravitational lens, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), pulsars, quasars.
Relativity: Special theory of relativity - super-luminal velocity - Minkowski space - introduction to general theory of relativity – space - time metric, geodesics, spacetime curvature. Advance of perihelion of Mercury, gravitational lens.
Cosmology: Comic principles, big bang and big crunch – cosmic background radiation - Nucleo-synthesis - plank length and time, different cosmic models - inflationary, steady state. Variation of G. anthropic principle.