Solar energy: Solar Radiation – Empirical Equations – Solar Chart – Measurements of Solar Radiation and Sunshine. Solar Thermal Collectors – Flat Plate and Concentrating Collectors. Solar Thermal Power Plant. PV Systems and applications. Applications: Solar Desalination, Solar Pond, solar driers, Industrial Process Heat, etc.
Wind energy: Principles of wind power, site characteristics, Wind rows diagram, types of wind turbines – construction, working and performance characteristics, synchronization of wind energy with the grid.
Bio-energy: Methanation: Methanogenic bacteria, process of methanation, variables affecting the process, popular designs of bio gas plant – construction and working. Feed stock preparation. Application: Biomethanation of agro waste, animal waste and process industry waste – sugar industry, sago industry, etc,
Thermal: Pyrolysis, gasification process, variables affecting the process, types of gasifiers, construction and working of gasifiers. Application: Gasification of biomass, process industry waste viz. – paper mill, waste cotton mill, saw mill, etc,