Qualification: 
Ph.D, M. Pharm.
subinmaryzachariah@aims.amrita.edu

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, joined as Senior Lecturer in Amrita School of Pharmacy in September 2006. Currently she serves as Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Analysis. She received her Ph. D. in Pharmaceutical Sciences from Vinayaka Missions University, Salem in January 2014. She has her B.Pharm from Swamy Vivekananda College of Pharmacy, Erode and later obtained her M.Pharm in Pharmaceutical Chemistry from K.M.College of Pharmacy, Madurai.

After obtaining her post graduation, she started her career in teaching in the year 2003. She worked one year in Bangalore as lecturer in Milind Institute of Pharmacy Bangalore and continued teaching in St. Joseph's college of Pharmacy Cherthala till 2006.Then she joined Amrita School of Pharmacy from 2006 September onwards.

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah's areas of interest broadly include phytochemistry isolation, characterisation and pharmacological studies of biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, optimization of synthetic methodology leading to development of small molecules as diverse therapeutic agents. Currently, she is involved with 4H-chromene derivatives as a privileged scaffold for various in vitro and in vivo screening methods. A series of synthetic chromenes have been synthesized by her students followed by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitubercular and anticancer compounds. Now, she is also actively involved in design and synthesis of new biologically active azetidinones.

She is actively involved in guiding B.Pharm and M.Pharm projects. Some of her recent projects are as follows.

  • Synthesis and Formulation of Novel 4-phenyl -4H chromene derivatives as Anticancer and antiinflammatory agents.
  • Design,synthesis,characterization and in vitro evaluation of some novel 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one derivatives for the treatment of Breast carcinoma.
  • Synthesis and formulation of Novel 4-phenyl-4H-chromene derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.
  • Design ,synthesis ,characterisation and pharmacological evaluation of some novel substituted 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-one derivatives.
  • In silico design,synthesis,characterization and in vitro antiinflammatory and antioxidant studies of 4aryl-4H chromene derivatives.
  • Isolation, characterisation and in vitro pharmacological activities of Tagetes erecta
  • Phytochemical screening, isolation and pharmacological activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima
  • Phytochemical screening, antibacterial activity and formulation development of aqueous extract of dried galls of Quercus infectoria
  • Phytochemical standardisation and antioxidant evaluation of the roots of Mirabilis jalapa Linn
  • Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity studies of methanolic extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn
  • Phytochemical screening  antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of  methanolic extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn
  • Insilico design, synthesis and in vitro studies of some novel 4-phenyl-4H-chromene derivatives as anticancer and antiinflammatory agents.
  • In silico design, synthesis and in vitro studies of some novel 4-phenyl-4H -Chromene derivatives as antioxidant and antiinflammatory agents.
     

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Journal Article

K. Pa Reshmi, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and Dr. Vidya Viswanad, “Formulation and evaluation of novel chromene derivative as an anti-inflammatory agent used for inflammatory bowel diseases”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 319-324, 2017.[Abstract]


Objective: To formulate and evaluate an extended-release (ER) tablet of a new molecule, 2-amino-4-(4-bromophenyl)-7-hydroxy-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile using a combination of two polymers (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose [HPMC] K100 and HPMC phthalate) which control the rate and degree of the drug release through 12 hrs period and protect the drug release from acidic pH. Methods: Five batches of tablets (4HC1, 4HC2, 4HC3, 4HC4, 4HC5) were produced by direct compression method. Morphological evaluation of the powder blend was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry and Powered X-ray diffractometry. The evaluation studies such as flow properties, hardness, friability, drug content, and release study were conducted according to pharmacopoeial standards. Results: The physicochemical characteristics of all the granules and tablets were generally satisfactory. The drug release followed zero order, Higuchi model kinetics with diffusion and dissolution mediated mechanism. Tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters and promising. Stability studies indicated the dosage form is stable for 3 months at accelerated conditions. Conclusion: From the results received from all test, it was concluded that formulation 4HC4 are the most suitable choice for developing 12 hrs ER tablets. This finding reveals that a particular concentration of HPMC K100 was capable of producing ER. © 2017 The Authors.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Leena K. Pappachen, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and Chandran, D., “In silico design, synthesis and characterization of some novel benzothiazole derivatives as anticancer agents”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 150-155, 2017.[Abstract]


Objectives: Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrollable, irreversible, independent, autonomous, uncoordinated, relatively unlimited, and abnormal overgrowth of tissues. Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. The aim of the study is to carry out the docking studies, synthesis, and antitumor activities of benzothiazole derivatives containing oxadiazole groups or amino groups. Methods: The docking studies of benzothiazole derivatives were done with known anticancer targets like estrogen receptor using Argus lab and AutoDock programs and compared with the standard drug tamoxifen. Based on the results obtained from the molecular modeling studies, the derivatives were selected for the synthesis. The synthesized compounds were characterized by melting point, thin layer chromatography, InfraRed,1H NMR,13CNMR, mass spectral data, and screened for their in-vitro anticancer activities. Results: The docking scores obtained for benzothiazole derivatives (BT1, BT2, BT3, BT4) and std. tamoxifen from the preliminary docking program using Argus Lab were -9.68, -9.4, -9.59, -11.1988, -9.71 and using AutoDock program were -6.29, -5.25, -7.19, -7.48, -3.86, respectively. All the four derivatives were synthesized, characterized, and subjected to in vitro anticancer screening by MTT assay in breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. Compounds DBT1, DBT2, and DBT3 were the most active compounds against MCF-7 cell lines with inhibitory concentration 50% of 70.0, 64.0 and 65.0, respectively. Conclusion: All the four derivatives show good docking scores when compared to standard drug tamoxifen and can be concluded that all the synthesized benzothiazole ligands show good anticancer property. © 2017 The Authors.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

J. Rajan, Krishnan, S., Menon, S. V., Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Pai, R. G., Surya, M., Javahar, M., and George, N., “In silico design, synthesis, characterization, in vitro anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant studies of 4-aryl-4H-chromene derivatives”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 408-413, 2017.[Abstract]


Objective: The objective of the study was to explore in silico design, preparation, characterization, and evaluation in vitro of some novel 4H-chromene derivatives as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Methods: 4-phenyl-4H chromene derivatives were imperiled to in silico modeling studies at the molecular level. The ligands were docked against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) receptor targets using Argus Lab. Based on the result, the derivatives were selected for wet lab synthesis. A highly efficient multicomponent reaction of 4H chromene was carried out by one-step condensation of aldehyde with malononitrile and resorcinol without catalyst in water under ultrasound irradiation. The prepared compounds were characterized by noting their melting point, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) and were scrutinized for its in vitro anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activitives by in vitro cell culture studies. IR spectra of the two compounds were analyzed and studied. Thus, using melting point, TLC and UV spectroscopy the synthesized compounds were found to be pure and identified chemically. The synthesized compounds were then screened for in vitro antioxidant (by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging) activity and anti-inflammatory activity by Raw 264.7 cell lines. Result: From the study, it was noticed that chemical structure-2 showed better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activitives than chemical structure. In the 4-phenyl-4H chromene derivatives, hydroxyl substitution at 7th position and electronegative halogen at 4th position showed better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusion: The results disclosed that these synthesized derivatives be likely to have moderate action against COX-2 mediated diseases, thereby it may lessen inflammation and agony because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activitives. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Na Thomas, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and Dr. Prasanna Ramani, “4-Aryl-4H-Chromene-3-Carbonitrile Derivates: Synthesis and Preliminary Anti-Breast Cancer Studies”, Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 2016.[Abstract]


A series of new 4-aryl-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives were obtained by one-pot synthesis using substituted benzaldehydes, malononitrile, and substituted phenols. All the synthesized compounds (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e) were screened in vitro for antioxidant and anticancer activities. Compounds 1c, 1d, 1e showed significant antioxidant activity in nitric oxide free radical scavenging method while compounds 1c and 1e showed significant activity in hydrogen peroxide free radical scavenging method. The other compounds showed significant to moderate activities in both the methods in comparison with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene as standards. Compounds 1c, 1d, 1e exhibited good anticancer activity, using Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cell line, compared with those of other synthesized compounds. © 2015 HeteroCorporation.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Ramkumar, M., George, N., Ashif, M. S., and Varghese, A., “In silico design, synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of some novel anti-lung cancer molecules”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, vol. 8, pp. 11221-11235, 2016.[Abstract]


Azetidinones are four membered heterocycles with nitrogen as the heteroatom. In silico molecular modelling predicts anticancer property of azetidinone derivatives. The azetidinone derivatives can be synthesized via simple and efficient 2- step reaction. This involves production of Schiff’s base which then reacts with ketene to form azetidinone. However the reaction is highly stereo selective and the reaction carried out in this study yielded acetamide derivative. The acetamide derivative showed good activity against lung cancer cell lines. The current research work deals with an In silico approach in designing azetidinone derivatives, problems faced during the synthesis of azetidinones and the possible scheme via which the product deferred. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. All rights reserved. More »»

2016

Journal Article

R. G. Pai, Surya, M., Javahar, P. B. Muhammed, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and George, N., “An endogenous heterocyclic compound isatin”, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 107-120, 2016.[Abstract]


Isatin, also called as 1H-Indole-2, 3-Dione is a compound which is endogenous in nature having eight carbon atoms. It is versatile in nature and distributed in tissues and body fluids. Isatin is a naturally occurring heterocyclic class of compound with an indole ring and two oxo groups in its ring system. Isatin is a naturally occurring compound, but was synthesized by Erdmann and Laurent in 1840 before it was found in nature. It is a useful scaffold which undergoes a variety of chemical transformations, but however its structure is relatively simple. In this article is a review of some methods of synthesis and physical and chemical properties isatin. There is also a description about its various activities like antiviral, anti -inflammatory, anticonvulsant, CNS -MAO inhibition, anxiogenic and antitumor activities, antimicrobial, antitubercular, inhibition of glucose and amino acid uptake. Diverse activities of Isatin include fibrinolytic, muscle relaxant, immunosuppressant, anti thrombotic activity and antiallergic.It also acts as an inhibitor of various protein kinase families, mainly that of tyrosine kinase receptors and serine/threonine specific protein kinase such as the cycline dependent kinases which is an effect of its indole ring.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Ramkumar, M., ,, and Ashif, M., “Azetidinones: An overview”, International journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 211-218, 2015.[Abstract]


Polymers, Pharmaceuticals have high importance in the chemistry field. Mannich base products are using in many applications in pharmaceuticals, paints and polymer industry. Anti-neoplastic drugs, analgesic drug and antibiotic drug studies received More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Ramkumar, M., George, N., and Ashif, M., “A Review on Oxadiazole”, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological Chemical Sciences, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Viswanad, V., KP, R., Viswanad, V., PS, N., SC, F. Beegum, and K., R. V., “In silico design , synthesis and invotro studies of some novel 4-phenyl 4H chromene derivatives as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents”, Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 32-40., 2015.

2014

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Kumar, N. M., K, D., Gopal, D., Thomas, N., Ramkumar, M., and George, N., “Phytochemical Screening, Formulation and Evaluation of Dried Galls of Quercus Infectoria Oliv”, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res, 2014.[Abstract]


Quercus infectoria oliv is an important medicinal plant of family Fagaceae comprises of galls called Oak galls. This is one of the traditionally used plant in Asian countries in the treatment of mouth ulcers, sores, and fungal infections. It is used as astringent, in anti-diarrhea preparations, ulcerative colitis and its dry extract is used as analgesic, hyperglycemic and has sedative hypnotic efficacy. The present study was aimed to carry out the phytochemical screening, antibacterial activity and formulation development
of aqueous extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria oliv. The present study involved the collection, authentification, organoleptic, physicochemical, and gravimetric evaluation, soxhlet extraction of dried powdered galls of Quercus infectoria oliv using distilled water, preliminary phytochemical screening, determination of MIC and antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract by agar well diffusion assay followed by formulation of an antibacterial gel and its antibacterial evaluation. The major constituent of the galls are gallotannic acids and carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannins were found in small amounts. Aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria oliv and the formulated gel showed significant antibacterial activity against Psedomonas aeruginosa spp. It was found that the galls are rich in tannins which mainly contribute the antibacterial property. The aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria oliv and the formulated gel have significant antibacterial activity. The gel was found to be non
irritant to skin on application

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah and Thomas, N., “In Silico drug design and analysis of 4-Phenyl-4H-chromene derivatives as anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review And Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 50-54., 2013.

2013

Journal Article

V. Anju and Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, “Phytochemical and pharmacological activities of caesalpinia pulcherrima - An overview”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 5, pp. 6-13, 2013.[Abstract]


Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an ornamental medicinal plant which are widely distributed throughout India. The plant is a perennial shrub having varying medicinal properties, which are widely used for the treatment of inflammation,ulcers,fevers,tumors etc. They also have abortifacient property and are widely used in malarial fever and the leaves act as an antimicrobial agent. The present study was a review on the various medicinal properties of the plant and the studies supporting their significance in the treatment of chronic diseases in herbal medicine industry. The phytochemical screening of the plant clearly showed the presence of alkaloids,glycosides, phenolics, tannins and flavanoids. Lot of researches were done on each part of the plant and there is a need of studying the compound by isolating single compound and to further study its properties. Various works on the antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity were carried out by different researchers since the constituents in the plant favour these activities. Cytotoxic activities were studied on the wood and bark of the plant and good results were obtained. Isolation works on the plant parts were also carried out by different researchers and of these glycosides isolated from the wood and cassane like diterpenoid isolation were prominent work on the plant glycosides The work aim to signify the importance of future study relating the properties of this ornamental plant which might become a boon for treatment of chronic conditions in humans.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

N. Thomas and Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, “Pharmacological activities of chromene derivatives: An overview”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 6, pp. 11-15, 2013.[Abstract]


Chromene (Benzopyran) was one of the privileged scaffold which appears as an important structural component in various natural products and also possess useful photochemical properties. The derivatives of benzopyran moiety can be capable of interacting with a variety of cellular targets which leads to their wide ranging biological activities such as antitumor, antihepatotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, anticoagulant, antispasmolytic, estrogenic, antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-helminthic, hypothermal, vasodilatory, anti-HIV, antitubercular, herbicidal, anticonvulsant and analgesic activity. The potency of these clinically useful pharmacophore in treatment of cancer and inflammation and other activities encouraged the development of some more potent and significant compounds. The SAR studies reported that the substitution in the chromene nucleus with the specific groups increases the ability of the molecule to prevent diseases. This review is summarized to know about the different pharmacological activities of chromene nucleus with the extended knowledge about its anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Vidya, V., Halima, O. A., Geetu, G., and Devika, N., “Monitoring the safety aspects of over the counter medications”, IRJP, vol. 3, pp. 109–11, 2013.

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Dr. Vidya Viswanad, Aleykutty, N. Ab, Jaykar, Bc, and Halima, O. Aa, “Free radical scavenging and antibacterial activity of Mirabilis jalapa Linn using in vitro models”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 5, pp. 115-120, 2012.[Abstract]


Medicinal plants form a major source of raw materials for drugs for the prevention and treatment of ailments. Mirabilis jalapa linn is used as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory agent, laxative in folk medicine. Antioxidants play an important role in protecting against damage by reactive oxygen species.The present study was designed to evaluate the plant potential as an antioxidant lead by using various in vitro models like Hydrogen peroxide scavenging method and reducing power assay method and also to determine its antibacterial potential. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols like phenolic compounds and tannins. The total flavanoid content of the extract was found to be 4.41 ± 0.02 mg /gram. The plant exhibited significant antioxidant properties and could serve as a free radical inhibitor or scavenger. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method. The greatest zone of inhibition was displayed by methanolic extract against pseudomonas at 3mg/ml. With a wide spectrum of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the methanolic extract of Mirabilis jalapa are worthy of further investigation as a natural wide spectrum antibacterial agent. These results indicates the potential of Mirabilis jalapa as a source of antioxidant and antibacterial compound.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Vad Viswanad, Aleykutty, Nb, Jayakar, Bc, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and Thomas, Lc, “Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases”, Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research, vol. 3, pp. 106-111, 2012.[Abstract]


Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 - 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05) activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Aleykutty, Nb, Dr. Vidya Viswanad, and Halima, O. Aa, “An overview on hepatoprotective activity of natural products”, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, vol. 5, pp. 317-321, 2012.[Abstract]


Medicinal practioners have prescribed Ayurveda and drugs from herbal origin as a system of medicine in India over centuries. Many of the modern drug mainly based on synthetic chemical compounds, however have been found to have harmful side effects on the human system. This has triggered off extensive research and development in the field of herbal medicine. In fact, there is a growing demand for herbal medicines in most of the developed and developing countries of the world today. Liver is a vital organ that plays a major role in the metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics from the body. Liver disease is the major challenge faced by the world and is the leading cause of death in western countries. Exposure too many chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride, thioacetamide, alcohols and drugs can result in injury to liver, therby impairing its normal function and resulting in biochemical abnormalities. Herbal drugs are the potential source of therapeutic aid for treating liver disease and a number of scientific investigations revealed the importances and contributions of these natural products. Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for liver disorders in ethnomedical practice as well as traditional system of medicine in India. More over them are economical with fewer side effects and can be used independent of any age groups. They are rich in chemical compounds like flavonoids that impart antioxidant property and in turn possess hepatoprotective activity. Though a wide variety of herbal drugs with hepatoprotective activity is known, many of them are not proven clinically. The hepatoprotective activity of some herbal drugs clinically proven using hepatotoxicity models are explained in this review. This review is aimed at enumerating some of the natural products that possess hepatoprotective activity. © RJPT All right reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Aleykutty, N. Ab, Jayakar, Bc, Viswanad, Vac c, and Gopal, R. Va, “In vitro anthelmintic activity of aerial parts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 12, pp. 107-110, 2012.[Abstract]


Helminth infections are among the widest spread infections in humans, distressing a huge population of the world. Although the majority of infections due to helminthes are generally restricted to tropical regions and cause enormous hazard to health1. The gastrointestinal helminthes becomes resistant to currently available anthelmintic drugs. Hence there is an increasing demand towards natural anthelmintics. Hundreds of millions if not billions of human infections by helminthes exist worldwide and increased world travel and immigration from the developing countries. Mirabilis jalapa Linn is a perennial herb of family Nyctaginaceae as a long history of traditional use as an anthelmintic. All parts of the plant are a rich source of medicinally useful components. The total phenolic content varied from 1.36 ± 0.02 mg/gm of dried extract equivalent to Gallic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anthelmintic activity of aerial parts using in vitro models using Pheretimaposthuma as test worms. Various concentrations (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%) of M.jalapa extracts were tested in the assay, which involved determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. Albendazole is the first drug of choice for the treatment of worm infections. It is also first reported anthelmintic which promises to have useful activity against all the types of helminth. The methanolic extracts of M.jalapa Linn were more potent as anthelmintic probably because of flavonoids, glycosides and tannins in dose-dependent manner giving shortest time of paralysis and death with 80% w/v concentration. The methanolic extract of M.jalapa Linn caused paralysis in 12.6 min and death in 13.5 min. The reference drug albendazole showed the same at 2.3 min and 3.24 min. The results shows that methanolic extract possess vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, A, D. Aleykutty, Viswanad, V., and A, H. O., “Evaluation of Antioxidant and Total Flavanoid Content of Mirabilis Jalapa using InVitro Models”, International Research Journal of Pharmacy, no. 3, pp. 187-191. , 2012.

2011

Journal Article

Vac Viswanad, Aleykutty, N. Ab, Jaykar, Bc, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and Thomas, La, “Studies on antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Samadera indica”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 11, pp. 59-64, 2011.[Abstract]


Samadera indica a bitter plant widely distributed throughout India. The bitterness is due to the presence of triterpenoid such as quassinoids, this group responsible for wide variety biological activities. In the current world population, incidence of infection is increasing tremendously and hence the present study was aimed to carry out the antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Samadera indica, both the activities can be used to predict the wound healing activity of this extract. The methanolic extracts of Samadera indica obtained by soxhletation and was investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against microorganism including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus Subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aerueginosa, Escherichia coli and Proteus Vulgaris) and few strains of fungus such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates. In addition, evaluated antioxidant activity and estimated total phenolic and flavanoids content. Antimicrobial studies revealed that it has significant activity against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans, but was resistant against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates. All the methods of antioxidant showed a prominent antioxidant activity and were compared with Quercetin. Antioxidant activity of extracts produced increased scavenging activity in a dose dependent manner. The present study revealed the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, hence further studies could be carried out to find out the wound healing activity.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Vidya Viswanad, Aleykutty, N. Ab, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and Thomas, La, “Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Samadera indica using In vitro models”, Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 3, pp. 85-90, 2011.[Abstract]


Antioxidant has gained importance in the current scenario as it has an ability to trap free radicals which are produced during the degenerative diseases. Natural antioxidant is considered superior to synthetic as it is safe and produces a prominent action. Samadera indica a bitter plant widely distributed throughout India, and mostly found in evergreen forest of Western Ghats and along river shore, the bitterness is due to the presence of flavanoids like Quassinoids. Literatures showed the presence of Quassinoids and therefore, plant may show the antioxidant activity which is not yet ruled out. Hence the present study was focused out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Samadera indica by in-vitro models. Method: The plant leaf was extracted using methanol and acetone as solvent. The extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging assay using DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging assay, FRAP, DCF/AAPH assay and was expressed as IC 50. Result: All the methods showed a prominent antioxidant activity butwere comparatively lower than standard Quercetin. Antioxidant activity of extracts produced increased scavenging activity in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: The evaluation of antioxidant activity of Samadera indica concludes that the plant extracts showed activity and this may be due to the presence of flavanoids. Hence, further work should be done on the isolation and identification of other antioxidant components of Samadera indica.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Aleykutty, N. A., Viswanad, V., Jacob, S., and Prabhakar, V., “In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn”, Free Radicals and Antioxidants, vol. 1, pp. 82 - 86, 2011.[Abstract]


ABSTRACT Introduction: Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. The relatively lower incidence of adverse reactions to plant preparations compared to modern pharmaceuticals is encouraging both the consuming public and national health care institutions to consider plant medicines as alternatives to synthetic drugs [1, 2, 3, 4] . Various crude extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn of family Nyctaginaceae has been widely used in traditional medicine. The infusion or decoction of Mirabilis jalapa Linn leaves is being used to treat inflammatory and painful diseases [5, 6]. Of date there has not been any report on any kind of antioxidant screening of the areal extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn including the kernel and the leaves. Methods: This is one of the first studies reporting the antioxidant potential of aerial (bark and leaves) and the root extracts of Mirabilis jalapa separately using ABTS and DPPH assay methods The present study was aimed to extract, identify the various phytochemical constituents and to study the antioxidant activities of the plant by various chemical and instrumental methods. Results: The extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phytosterols, triterpenoids and flavonoids in significantly detectable amounts. In the present study we examined the antioxidant effects of methanolic extract of the aerial parts and root extracts of Mirabilis jalapa Linn at various concentrations in the ABTS+ (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ) and DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. Conclusions: The results of the study reveal the immense potential of the plant for further research that aims at identifying the bioactive components responsible for the anti-oxidant activity and elucidating their tentative mechanisms of action.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Viswanad, V., Aleykutty, D. N. A., and Prabhakar, V., “Antimicrobial Potential of Herbal Medicines”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research. , vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 1651-1658. , 2011.[Abstract]


Herbal medicines are widely used since time immemorial indicating that herbs are a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine.India has an ancient heritage of traditional herbal medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the populations living in the developing countries rely almost exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. The use of herbal drugs for treating various diseases predates human history forms the origin of much of the modern medicine.The medicinal plants are used for various diseases because of their safety and effectiveness. The problem of microbial resistance is growing and the outlook for the use of antimicrobial drugs in the future is still uncertain. Therefore, actions must be taken to control the use of antibiotic, to develop research to better understand the genetic mechanisms of resistance, and to continue studies to develop either synthetic or natural new drugs. Numerous studies have been done on herbals confirming their potential antimicrobial property against microorganisms. One of the strategies towards attaining this objective is the rational localization of bioactive phytoconstituents. This review provides the important methods for evaluating the antibacterial potency of selected plants and also the mechanism of action responsible for antimicrobial potency.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Dr. Leena K. Pappachen, Dr. Aneesh T. P., Alex, L., Sumith, G., John, M. Sheeba, Praseetha, M. C., and Nagalekshmi, R., “Phytochemical And Pharmacological Screening Of Sphaeranthus Indicus Linn. For Antimicrobial Activity”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 1, pp. 169-173, 2010.[Abstract]


Sphaeranthus indicus Linn (Asteraceae) is a common annual spreading herb found in rice field throughout India. Six crude extracts were prepared from the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus using different solvents by cold maceration process. The extracts were subjected to screening to detect potential antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. substillus, P. Gentamycin and Nystatin as standard by cup plate agar diffusion method. The aim of our present study was to find out the antimicrobial activity of the different extracts of entire part including flower heads of Sphaeranthus indicus. The different extracts such as hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and aqueous extract exhibits comparable antimicrobial activity with the standard.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

P. Muthumani, Meera, R., Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, ,, Devi, P., Kameswari, B., and Priya, B. E., “Phytochemical screening and anti inflammatory, bronchodilator and antimicrobial activities of the seeds of Luffa cylindrica.”, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 11-22, 2010.[Abstract]


To find out the pytochemical constituents in the seeds of Luffa cylindrica and determine their anti-inflammatory, Bronchodilator and Antimicrobial activity. The fruit of Luffa cylindrica collected from the village, Othakadai near Madurai, Tamilnadu, south India were dried and the seeds were separated from the fruit and extracted with petroleumether, benzene, chloroform and alcohol. The petroleum ether extract and benzene extract were mixed and chromatographed, by using solvents n-Hexane, petroleum ether, benzene, ethylacetate and methanol. Finally the compounds isolated Cu-1, Cu-2, Cu-3 and Cu-4. Phytochemical screening was carried out according to standard procedures. Anti inflammatory activity was determined by carragenan induced paw-odema method by using external standard Diclofenoc sodium and oral Brufen. Bronchodilator activity using Guinea pig trachea compared to standard Aminophylline. Anti microbial activity was effective against S. aureus and Candida albicans. For all the activities the column isolated compounds and alcohol, petroleum ether extracts were used. Sugar, protein, Alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and glycoside were found to be present in the extracts. Cu-1 has moderate anti-inflammatory and Cu-3 has significant anti-inflammatory activity. Cu-2 and Cu-4 have significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Cu-4 has significant Bronchodilator activity. Luffa cylindrica seed extracts and oil possess good anti inflammatory, Bronchodilator and antimicrobial activity.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Dr. Leena K. Pappachen, Fasmi, K. N., Jose, S., and Vimal, A., “Combinatorial Drug Design-Formulation of the Era”, International Journal of Chemical Science, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 200-2008, 2009.[Abstract]


The field of medicinal chemistry and drug design is in a state of development and is at present undergoing major restructuring. The molecular biological revolution and the progressing mapping of the human genome have created a new biochemical and biostructural great order. These developments have provided new challenges and opportunities for drug research and drug design. The aim of this review is to know more about the newly formulated drugs with the use of computer aided designed drugs and molecular modeling. One can site the advances in the understanding in the reaction mechanism, conformational analysis, host - guest interactions, quantum mechanics and so on. The major objective of the medicinal chemist is in designing molecules interacting with the degenerating process in the diseased organisms.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, P, A. T., M, S. Sekhar, Jose, A., and Chandran, L., “Pharmacogenomics: The Right Drug to the Right Person.”, Journal of Clinical Medicine Research., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 191-194. , 2009.[Abstract]


Pharmacogenomics is the branch of pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a drug's efficacy or toxicity. It aims to develop rational means to optimize drug therapy, with respect to the patients genotype, to ensure maximum efficacy with minimal adverse effects. Such approaches promise the advent of personalized medicine, in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for each individual's unique genetic makeup. Pharmacogenomics is the whole genome application of pharmacogenetics, which examines the single gene interactions with drugs.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, Muthumani, P., and Ramaseshu, K., “Phytochemistry and Antimicrobial Screening of Stem Bark of Murraya Koenigii (Linn) Spreng”, The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. , vol. 6, no. 2, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah and Dr. Leena K. Pappachen, “A study of genetic engineering techniques in biotechnology based pharmaceuticals”, The Internet Journal,Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1 - 8, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Aneesh T. P., M, S. Sekhar, P.O, S., Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, “Radio Frequency Identification: An Effective Tool to Prevent Drug Counterfeiting”, Journal of Pharmacy Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 678 - 679, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Leena K. Pappachen, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and Fasmi;, K. N., “Combinatorial Drug Design- formulation of the Era.”, Int.Jour.Chem.Sci., 2009.

207
PROGRAMS
OFFERED
6
AMRITA
CAMPUSES
15
CONSTITUENT
SCHOOLS
A
GRADE BY
NAAC, MHRD
8th
RANK(INDIA):
NIRF 2018
150+
INTERNATIONAL
PARTNERS